Important Dates in Mexican History

A timeline of the most important dates in Mexico since the conquest, presented chronologically.

Ignacio Allende
Ramon Perez/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain

On January 17, 1811, a rebellious army of peasants and workers led by Father Miguel Hidalgo and Ignacio Allende fought a smaller but better equipped and trained Spanish force at Calderon Bridge, outside of Guadalajara. The stunning rebel defeat helped drag out Mexico's War of Independence for years and led to the capture and execution of Allende and Hidalgo. More »

Villa as he appeared in the United States press during the Revolution.
Bain Collection/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain

On March 9, 1916, legendary Mexican bandit and warlord Pancho Villa led his army across the border and attacked the town of Columbus, New Mexico, hoping to secure money and weapons. Although the raid was a failure and led to an extensive US-led manhunt for Villa, it greatly increased his reputation in Mexico. More »

Gen. Pancho Villa, previously general of the División del Norte before the Battle of Celaya
Archivo General de la Nación/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain

On April 6, 1915, two titans of the Mexican Revolution collided outside of the town of Celaya. Alvaro Obregon got there first, and dug himself in with his machine guns and trained infantry. Pancho Villa soon arrived with a massive army including the best cavalry in the world at the time. Over the course of ten days, these two would fight it out, and Villa's loss marked the beginning of the end for his hopes of being the last man standing. More »

Emiliano Zapata en la ciudad de Cuernavaca
Mi General Zapata/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain

On April 10, 1919, rebel leader Emiliano Zapata was set up, betrayed and assassinated in Chinameca. Zapata had been the moral conscience of the Mexican Revolution, fighting for land and freedom for the poorest Mexicans. More »

A Escobar C, digital Archive Mexico's hundred years of independece festivity, 1910; president Porfirio Díaz
Aurelio Escobar Castellanos/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain

The famous "Cinco de Mayo" celebrates an unlikely victory by Mexican forces over French invaders in 1862. The French, who had sent an army to Mexico to collect on a debt, were advancing on the city of Puebla. The French army was massive and well-trained, but heroic Mexicans stopped them in their tracks, led in part by a dashing young General named Porfirio Diaz. More »

Portrait of Pedro de Alvarado (1485-1541)
Unknown/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain

In May of 1520, Spanish conquistadors had a tentative hold on Tenochtitlan, now called Mexico City. On May 20, Aztec nobles asked Pedro de Alvarado for permission to hold a traditional festival, and he permitted it. According to ​Alvartado, the Aztecs were planning a rebellion, and according to the Aztecs, ​Alvarado and his men wanted the golden jewelry they wore. In any case, Alvarado ordered his men to attack the festival, resulting in the slaughter of hundreds of unarmed Aztec nobles. More »

Victoriano Huerta (left) and Pascual Orozco (right).
Unknown/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain

1914: Surrounded by angry warlords, Mexican usurper President Victoriano Huerta sends his best troops to defend the city and railway junction at Zacatecas in a desperate effort to keep rebels out of the city. Ignoring orders from supposed rebel leader Venustiano Carranza, Pancho Villa attacks the town. Villa's resounding victory cleared the path to Mexico City and begins the downfall of Huerta. More »

Pancho Villa (left) and chief executioner Rodolfo Fierro, known as el Carnicero
Ruiz/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain

On July 20, 1923, legendary bandit warlord Pancho Villa was gunned down in the town of Parral. He had survived the Mexican Revolution and had been living quietly at his ranch. Even now, years later, questions linger over who killed him and why. More »

Miguel Hidalgo, siglo XIX, imagen tomada de: Jean Meyer, “Hidalgo”, en La antorcha encendida, México, Editorial Clío, 1996, p. 2.
Anonymous/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain

On September 16, 1810, Father Miguel Hidalgo took to the pulpit in the town of Dolores and announced that he was taking up arms against the hated Spanish...and invited his congregation to join him. His army swelled to hundreds, then thousands, and would carry this unlikely rebel to the gates of Mexico City itself. Ths "Cry of Dolores" marks Mexico's Independence Day. More »

Hidalgo the father of Mexico
Antonio Fabres/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain

1810: Father Miguel Hidalgo's rag-tag rebel army was moving towards Mexico City, and the city of Guanajuato would be their first stop. Spanish soldiers and citizens barricaded themselves inside the massive royal granary. Although they defended themselves valiantly, Hidalgo's mob was too large, and when the granary was breached the slaughter began. More »

A teacher talks with soldiers in front of high school #1 on 30 July while students demonstrate in the background.
Marcel·li Perelló/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain

On October 2, 1968, thousands of Mexican civilians and students gathered in The Plaza of the Three Cultures in the district of Tlatelolco to protest repressive government policies. Inexplicably, security forces opened fire on the unarmed protestors, resulting in the death of hundreds of civilians, marking one of the lowest points in Mexican History. More »

Closing of the 1968 Summer Olympic Games at the Estadio Olímpico Universitario in Mexico City
Sergio Rodriguez/Wikimedia Commons/Creative Commons 3.0

Not long after the tragic Tlatelolco Massacre, Mexico hosted the 1968 Summer Olympics. These games would be remembered for Czechoslovakian gymnast Věra Čáslavská being robbed of gold medals by Soviet judges, Bob Beamon's record long jump and American athletes giving the black power salute. More »

Ignacio Allende
Ramon Perez/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain

As Miguel Hidalgo, Ignacio Allende and their rebel army marched on Mexico City, Spanish in the capital were terrified. Spanish Viceroy, Francisco Xavier Venegas, rounded up all available soldiers and sent them to delay the rebels as best they could. The two armies clashed at Monte de las Cruces on October 30, and it was another resounding victory for the rebels. More »

Foto retocada del ex-presidente mexicano Francisco I. Madero.
Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain

Mexico's 1910 elections was a sham designed to keep long-term dictator Porfirio Diaz in power. Francisco I. Madero "lost" the election, but he was far from through. He went to the USA, where he called on Mexicans to rise up and overthrow Diaz. The date he gave for the beginning of the revolution was November 20, 1910. Madero could not foresee the years of strife that would follow and claim the lives of hundreds of thosands of Mexicans...including his own. More »