How to Conjugate "Inclure" (to Include) in French

"Include" These in Your Verb Conjugations

When you want to say "to include" in French, use the verb inclure. The similarity to the English makes it an easy one to remember. Yet, it still needs to be conjugated to take on the meanings of "included" or "including" as well as other verb forms. A quick French lesson will explain how this is done.

Conjugating the French Verb Inclure

Inclure is an irregular verb, so it does not follow one of the common verb conjugation patterns.

However, it's not alone. The same verb endings used here can also be applied to similar verbs like conclure (to conclude)exclure (to exclude), and occlure (to occlude).

As with all verb conjugations, begin by identifying the verb stem. In this case, that is inclu-. Next, add a new infinitive ending according to the subject pronoun and the tense. They're different for each of the present, future, and perfect tenses, so there are more words to remember. For example, "I include" is "j'inclus" while "we will include" is "nous inclurons."


The Present Participle of Inclure

Used as either a verb, adjective, noun, or gerund depending on the context, the present participle is formed by adding -ant to the verb stem.

For inclure, this results in incluant.

The Past Participle and Passé Composé

Beyond the imperfect, you can also use the passé composé to form the past tense "included" in French. To form this, begin with the appropriate conjugate of avoir (an auxiliary, or "helping," verb) to match the subject pronoun.

Then, attach the past participle inclus. For example, "I included" is "j'ai inclus" and "we included" is "nous avons inclus."

More Simple Inclure Conjugations to Know

Over time, you may also find uses for a few more simple conjugations of inclure. The subjunctive verb mood, for instance, is used when the action of including is somehow uncertain. In a similar manner, the conditional verb mood says that the including will only happen if something else does as well.

The literary tenses of the passé simple and the imperfect subjunctive are primarily found in formal writing. If you read a lot of French, these would also be good to know.

SubjectSubjunctiveConditionalPassé SimpleImperfect Subjunctive
j'inclueinclurais   inclusinclusse

The imperative verb form is the only one that does not require a subject pronoun. That's because the verb implies the whom in these short statements or requests. Rather than "tu inclus," simplify it to "inlcus."