Italian Present Subjunctive Tense

Il Congiuntivo Presente

Balcony in Torri del Benaco on Lake Garda
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The present subjunctive is the verb form of the Italian language in the phrase generally used to indicate secondary events seen as real or not objectives (Spero che voi siate sinceri) or not relevant.

Conjugating the Present Subjunctive Tense
This verb form is combined by adding to the root of the verb endings provided in Italian grammar in the three conjugations. Since the subjunctive must generally after the conjunction that, this is often repeated.

As with the conjugation of the present tense, some verbs of the third conjugation - such verbs incoativi - involving the use of the suffix -isc-: che io finisca, che tu finisca, che egli finisca, che noi finiamo, che voi finiate, che essi finiscano.

Almost all irregular shapes can be, by way 'recipe, derived from the first person of the verb in the present tense:

  • I am of the indication vengo can be formed subjunctive che io venga (che tu venga, che egli venga, che noi veniamo, che voi veniate, che essi vengano); dall'indicativo muoio può essere formato il congiuntivo che io muoia (che tu muoia eccetera); dall'indicativo faccio può essere formato congiuntivo che io faccia; similmente: che io dica, vada, esca, voglia, possa eccetera;
  • verb conjugations dovere is based on the present tense as it used less (io debbo; che io debba);
  • very few verb forms that present mechanisms conjugation deviating from this norm. Essentially, these are the following: che io sia (essere), che io abbia (avere), che io dia (dare), che io sappia (sapere), che io stia (stare);
    • for the verb essere will be a result sia, sia, sia, siamo, siate, siano.

    For verbs that end in -care, -ciare, cere, -gare, -giare, -gere and similar, apply mechanisms similar to those of the formation of the present tense (some examples: che io cerchi, cominci, vinca).

    CONJUGATING ITALIAN VERBS IN THE PRESENT SUBJUNCTIVE TENSE
     First conjugation verbs such as PARLARESecond conjugation verbs such as RICEVEREThird conjugation verbs such as DORMIRE
    che ioparliricevadorma
    che tuparliricevadorma
    che lui, lei, Leiparliricevadorma
    che noiparliamoriceviamodormiamo
    che voiparliatericeviatedormiate
    che loro, Loroparlinoricevanodormano

    Use of the Present Subjunctive Tense in the Secondary Clause
    Is usually used in the secondary phrase introduced by verbs of opinion as credere, pensare, ritenere, reputare and verbs desiderativi as volere, sperare, augurare:

    Credo che ormai il treno arrivi sul secondo binario.
    Pensate che io sia matto?
    Spero proprio che Marta sostenga l'esame.
    Suppongo che il film finisca verso le dieci.
    Voglio che tu venga alla nostra festa, non dirmi di no!

    Is also being introduced, inter alia, by the conjunctions senza che, prima che, nonostante, malgrado, a meno che, a condizione che, affinché:

    Rocco parte senza che io possa salutarlo.
    Rocco ha paura dell'esame malgrado/nonostante sia assai studioso.
    Ti prego di iniziare quel lavoro, a meno che tu non sia già troppo occupato con altre cose.
    Si accettano tutti i cani, a condizione che siano in buona salute.
    Ti critico soltanto affinché tu ti accorga di qualche piccolo problema.

    In some of these cases, spoken in more spontaneous, it is easy to see how the present indicative arrivals to replace that of the subjunctive. On the one hand, such phenomena are attested as early as the Middle Ages, the other the use of the subjunctive, in some central-dialects, has always been slightly narrower than that of the standard language.

    Substitution of the present tense is frequent especially the case of the second person singular: I think you're here instead of think (you) is here: the phenomenon is partly explained by the fact that the conjugation of the subjunctive in the singular is the same for different people (both, both, both): given the possibility of an ambiguous statement is not clear how the use of the indicative can somehow better specify to whom it relates.

    Use of the Present Subjunctive Tense in the Primary Clause
    Note how this time can, in the second place, also occur in the main.

    1. You may remember in this chapter, as an introduction, the use of the imperative in the third person, although the form of courtesy, loro their speech has a very limited use:

    Signora, sia ottimista, tutto si sistemerà.
    Benvenuti, mi facciano la cortesia di riempire questo modulo, per piacere.

    In these cases, the voices blend with those of the imperative of the subjunctive.

    2. Similarly, in the main, the present subjunctive may indicate a desire, a wish:

    Vogliate farci pervenire il pacchetto il più presto possibile.
    Che tu sia maledetto!
    Quelle persone vogliono pulire? Bene, allora comincino subito invece di stare tanto a chiacchierare.

    The use of the present tense (sia) here indicates a possible action, while in similar contexts the imperfect subjunctive indicate unreality (Se ti portassero via!). In other words, the difference between the present and the imperfect is not, in this case, of a temporal nature.

    3. The present subjunctive may also indicate a doubt, a supposition:

    Non vedo Valentino. Che sia fuori casa?

    where the use of this means the moment of enunciation, while the imperfect would indicate a time past (L'anno scorso Valentino era magrissimo; che fosse malato?). In this case, the opposition between the two forms is actually the time value.

    4. The present subjunctive recurs finally in some idiomatic expressions (Che tu voglia o no; Costi quel che costi; Sia come sia) or in verbal forms crystallized and therefore no longer conjugated (Viva le donne! Prendo sia le patatine, sia le verdure).

    Standard Italian (Not) Spoken Here

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    Filippo, Michael San. "Italian Present Subjunctive Tense." ThoughtCo, Jul. 28, 2015, thoughtco.com/italian-present-subjunctive-tense-p2-2011754. Filippo, Michael San. (2015, July 28). Italian Present Subjunctive Tense. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/italian-present-subjunctive-tense-p2-2011754 Filippo, Michael San. "Italian Present Subjunctive Tense." ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/italian-present-subjunctive-tense-p2-2011754 (accessed January 17, 2018).