Languages › Japanese Japanese Particle: To Share Flipboard Email Print Yasuhide Fumoto / Getty Images Japanese Essential Japanese Vocabulary History & Culture Japanese Grammar By Namiko Abe Japanese Language Expert B.A., Kwansei Gakuin University our editorial process Namiko Abe Updated March 03, 2019 Particles are probably one of the most difficult and confusing aspects of Japanese sentences. A particle (joshi) is a word that shows the relationship of a word, a phrase, or a clause to the rest of the sentence. Some particles have English equivalents. Others have functions similar to English prepositions, but since they always follow the word or words they mark, they are post-positions. There are also particles that have a peculiar usage which is not found in English. Most particles are multi-functional. Click here to learn more about particles.The Particle "To"Complete ListingIt connects only nouns and pronouns, never phrases and clauses. It translates into "and". Kutsu to boushi o katta.靴と帽子を買った｡I bought shoes and a hat.Eigo to nihongo o hanashimasu.英語と日本語を話します｡I speak English and Japanese.ContrastIt indicates a comparison or contrast between the two nouns. Neko to inu to dochira ga suki desu ka.猫と犬とどちらが好きですか｡Which do you like better, cats or dogs?AccompanimentIt translates into "together, with". Tomodachi to eiga ni itta.友達と映画に行った｡I went to a movie with my friend.Yuki wa raigetsu Ichiro to kekkon shimasu. 由紀は来月一朗と結婚します｡Yuki is going to marry Ichiro next month.Change/ResultIt is commonly used in the phrase "~ to naru （～となる）", and indicates that something reaches a goal or new state. Tsuini orinpikku no kaisai no hi to natta.ついにオリンピックの開催の日となった｡At last the opening day of the Olympics has come.Bokin wa zenbu de hyakuman-en to natta.募金は全部で百万円となった｡The total amount of donationsreached one million yen. QuotationIt is used before such verbs as "~ iu（～言う）", "~ omou（～思う）", "~ kiku （～聞く）", etc to introduce a clause or a phrase. It is normally preceded by a plain form of a verb. Kare wa asu kuru to itta.彼は明日来るといった｡He said that he will come tomorrow.Rainen nihon ni ikou to omotteiru. 来年日本に行こうと思っている｡I am thinking of going to Japan next year. ConditionalIt is placed after a verb or an adjective to form a conditional. It translates into "as soon as," "when," "if," etc. A plain form is usually used before the particle "to". Shigoto ga owaru to sugu uchi ni kaetta.仕事が終わるとすぐうちに帰った｡I went home as soon as work was over.Ano mise ni iku to oishii sushi ga taberareru. あの店に行くとおいしいすしが食べられる｡If you go to that restaurant, you can have great sushi.Sound SymbolismIt is used after onomatopoeic adverbs. Hoshi ga kira kira to kagayaiteiru.星がきらきらと輝いている｡The stars are twinkling.Kodomotachi wa bata bata to hashirimawatta. 子供立ちはバタバタと走り回った｡The children ran around making lots of noise.