Languages › Japanese Japanese Verb Conjugations: Group Two These verbs are easier to conjugate than their group one counterparts Share Flipboard Email Print Japanese Japanese Grammar History & Culture Essential Japanese Vocabulary by Namiko Abe Namiko Abe is a Japanese language teacher and translator, as well as a Japanese calligraphy expert. She has been a freelance writer for nearly 20 years. Updated February 01, 2019 Students learning to speak and read Japanese have to learn an new alphabet and new ways of pronunciation which can be challenging at first. But they catch a break when it comes to some of the finer points of the language. Unlike the more complicated verb conjugations of Romance languages, in Japanese, verbs don't have a different form to indicate first- second- and third-person. There are no differences in singular and plural forms, and like English, there is no different gender for verbs. Japanese verbs are roughly divided into three groups according to their dictionary form (basic form). There are only two irregular verbs (which are classified as "group three") in Japanese: kuru (to come) and suru (to do). Group one verbs end in "~ u" and are also known as consonant -stem or godan verbs. Then there's group two. These verbs are much easier to conjugate, as they all have the same basic conjugation patterns. Group two verbs in Japanese end in either "~iru" or "~ eru". This group is also called vowel-stem-verbs or Ichidan-doushi (Ichidan verbs). Here are some examples of vowel-stem verbs and their conjugations. neru (to sleep) Informal Present(Dictionary Form) neru寝る Formal Present(~ masu Form) nemasu寝ます Informal Past (~ ta Form) neta寝た Formal Past nemashita寝ました Informal Negative(~ nai Form) nenai寝ない Formal Negative nemasen寝ません Informal Past Negative nenakatta寝なかった Formal Past Negative nemasen deshita寝ませんでした ~ te Form nete寝て Conditional nereba寝れば Volitional neyou寝よう Passive nerareru寝られる Causative nesaseru寝させる Potential nerareru寝られる Imperative(Command) nero寝ろ Examples: Neko wa neru no ga suki da.猫は寝るのが好きだ。 Cats like sleeping. Watashi wa Futon de nemasu. 私は布団で寝ます。 I sleep on a futon. Sakuya Yoku nerarenakatta. 昨夜よく寝れなかった。 I didn't sleep well last night. oshieru (to teach, to tell) Informal Present(Dictionary Form) oshieru Formal Present(~ masu Form) oshiemasu Informal Past (~ ta Form) oshieta Formal Past oshiemashita Informal Negative(~ nai Form) oshienai Formal Negative oshiemasen Informal Past Negative oshienakatta Formal Past Negative oshiemasen deshita ~ te Form oshiete Conditional oshietara Volitional oshieyou Passive oshierareru Causative oshiesaseru Potential oshierareru Imperative(Command) oshiero Examples: Nihon de eigo o oshiete imasu. I teach English in Japan. Oyogikata o oshiete. Teach me how to swim. Eki e iku michi o oshiete kudasai. Can you tell me the way to the station. miru (to see, to look) Informal Present(Dictionary Form) miru見る Formal Present(~ masu Form) mimasu見ます Informal Past (~ ta Form) mita見た Formal Past mimashita見ました Informal Negative(~ nai Form) minai見ない Formal Negative mimasen見ません Informal Past Negative minakatta見なかった Formal Past Negative mimasen deshita見ませんでした ~ te Form mite見て Conditional mireba見れば Volitional miyou見よう Passive mirareru見られる Causative misaseru見させる Potential mirareru見られる Imperative(Command) miro見ろ Examples: Kono eiga o mimashita ka.この映画を見ましたか。 Did you see this movie? Terebi o mite mo ii desu ka.テレビを見てもいいですか。 May I watch TV? Chizu o mireba wakarimasu yo.地図を見れば分かりますよ。 If you look at the map,you will understand. taberu (to eat) Informal Present(Dictionary Form) taberu食べる Formal Present(~ masu Form) tabemasu食べます Informal Past (~ ta Form) tabeta食べた Formal Past tabemashita食べました Informal Negative(~ nai Form) tabenai食べない Formal Negative tabemasen食べません Informal Past Negative tabenakatta食べなかった Formal Past Negative tabemasen deshita食べませんでした ~ te Form tabete食べて Conditional tabereba食べれば Volitional tabeyou食べよう Passive taberareru食べられる Causative tabesaseru食べさせる Potential taberareru食べられる Imperative(Command) tabero食べろ Examples: Kyou asagohan o tabenakatta.今日朝ご飯を食べなかった。 I didn't have breakfast today. Kangofu wa byounin ni ringo o tabesaseta.看護婦は病人にりんごを食べさせた。 The nurse fed an apple to the patient. Sore, taberareru no?それ、食べられるの？ Can you eat this? Continue Reading The 3 Japanese Verb Groups Japanese Verb Conjugations: Group One How Do You Conjugate "Matsu" in Japanese? Charts to Help You Conjugate Japanese Verbs Japanese Verb Conjugations How Do You Conjugate the Japanese Verb "Kuru" (to Come)? Useful Japanese Verbs How Do You Use the Japanese Verb "Te" Learn About Expressions of Ability and Potential Verbs in Japanese Specificity of Japanese Verbs 'to Wear' and 'to Play' Learn How to Conjugate the Japanese Verb "Suru" Learn Japanese with Audio Files The Most Common Loan Words in Japanese Learning the Japanese Children Song About Acorns "Ue o Muite Arukou" by Kyuu Sakamoto – "Sukiyaki" Song What Does It Mean When '-N Desu' Is Used at the End of a Sentence?