Julius Caesar Pictures

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Augustus. Clipart.com

Plutarch wrote of Julius Caesar that he said, "For my part, I had rather be the first man among these fellows, than the second man in Rome."

Augustus ruled as emperor from January 16, 27 B.C. to August 19, A.D. 14.

Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus or Augustus was born on September 23, 63 B.C. He died on August 19, A.D. 14. He was the first emperor of Rome, which was a tremendous accomplishment. He ended the much decayed and civil conflict-filled period of the Roman Republic when he started the first Imperial period, which we sometimes call the Principate. He gained power by playing on his relationship with his (posthumously) adoptive father, Julius Caesar. For this reason, he is often referred to as Caesar Augustus or Augustus Caesar, or even just Caesar. Once Augustus had removed all obstacles to his power, he began assuming the top Roman political position, that of consul (an annual position that was not supposed to be granted the same man two years in succession) year after year. He had acquired great wealth from Egypt when Cleopatra died and was able to distribute this to his soldiers. He acquired many virtually universally approved honors, including the title 'Augustus' and father of his country. The Senate asked him to be their head and granted him provinces of his own for ten years.

Although it took some time for the exact form of the new Imperial government to crystalize, Augustus' reign was long enough to establish the one man rule for Rome.

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Tiberius - Bust of the Roman Emperor Tiberius.
Tiberius - Bust of the Roman Emperor Tiberius. Public Domain. Courtesy of Wikipedia.

Tiberius was born 42 B.C. and died A.D. 37. He reigned as emperor A.D. 14-37.

Imperator Tiberius Caesar Augustus, the second emperor of Rome, was not the first choice of Augustus and was not popular with the Roman people. When he went into self-imposed exile to the island of Capri and left the ruthless, ambitious Praetorian Prefect, L. Aelius Sejanus, in charge back at Rome, he sealed his everlasting fame. If that weren't enough, Tiberius angered the senators by invoking treason (maiestas) charges against his enemies, and while in Capri he may have engaged in sexual perversions that were unsavory for the times and would be criminal in the U.S. today.

Tiberius was the son of Ti. Claudius Nero and Livia Drusilla. His mother divorced and remarried Octavian (Augustus) in 39 B.C. Tiberius married Vipsania Agrippina in about 20 B.C. He became consul in 13 B.C. and had a son Drusus. In 12 B.C., Augustus insisted that Tiberius get a divorce so he could marry Augustus' widowed daughter, Julia. This marriage was unhappy, but it put Tiberius in line for the throne for the first time. Tiberius deserted Rome for the first time (he did again at the end of his life) and went to Rhodes. When Augustus' succession plans had been foiled by deaths, he adopted Tiberius as his son and had Tiberius adopt as his own son his nephew Germanicus. The last year of his life, Augustus shared the rule with Tiberius and when he died, Tiberius was voted emperor by the senate.

Tiberius trusted Sejanus and appeared to be grooming him for his replacement when he was betrayed. Sejanus, his family and friends were tried, executed, or committed suicide. After the betrayal of Sejanus, Tiberius let Rome run itself and stayed away. He died at Misenum on March 16, A.D. 37.

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Bust of Caligula from the Getty Villa Museum in Malibu, California.
Caligula ruled from 18 (or 28) March 37 - 24 January 41. Bust of Caligula from the Getty Villa Museum in Malibu, California. Public Domain. Courtesy of Wikipedia.

Allegedly, Caligula commanded his soldiers to gather seashells as spoils of war. He is generally thought to have been insane.... [More below.]

Gaius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (aka Caligula) (born 31 August A.D. 12) was the son of Augustus' adopted grandson Germanicus and his wife Agrippina, Augustus' granddaughter. When Tiberius died on March 16, A.D. 37, his will named Caligula and his cousin Tiberius Gemellus heirs.

Caligula had Tiberius' will voided and became sole emperor. Initially, he was very generous and popular, but that quickly changed. Caligula was not content with worship as a god after death, as had been his predecessors, but wanted to be so honored while still alive, although Susan Wood says this, like the honors he gave his sisters, was actually a rational desire that was later distorted by hostile writers (incest, in the case of the sisters). Caligula was cruel and indulged in sexual aberrations that offended Rome and were considered insane.

The Praetorian Guard Cassius Chaerea had Caligula killed on 24 January A.D. 41. Following Caligula's reign, the Senate was ready to give up on the Principate and the memory of the Caesar's, but before that could happen, Claudius was installed as emperor.

  • "Diva Drusilla Panthea and the Sisters of Caligula"
    Susan Wood
    American Journal of Archaeology (Jul., 1995), pp. 457-482
  • "The Tradition about Caligula"
    M. P. Charlesworth
    Cambridge Historical Journal (1933), pp. 105-119
  • "Caligula's Seashells"
    David Woods
    Greece & Rom (Apr., 2000), pp. 80-87
  • "Caligula and the Client Kings"
    D. Wardle
    The Classical Quarterly (1992), pp. 437-443
  • "Caligula's Recusatio Imperii"
    Alexander Jakobson and Hannah M. Cotton
    Historia: Zeitschrift für Alte Geschichte (1985), pp. 497-503
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Claudius. Public Domain. Courtesy of Wikipedia.

Claudius ruled as emperor, January 24, 41- October 13, 54 A.D.

Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (born 10 B.C., died 54 A.D.) suffered from various physical infirmities which many thought reflected his mental state. As a result, Claudius was secluded, a fact that kept him safe. Claudius became emperor shortly after his nephew was assassinated by his bodyguard, on January 24, A.D. 41. The tradition is that Claudius was found by some of the Praetorian Guard hiding behind a curtain. The guard hailed him as emperor. Tradition has it that Claudius' wife Agrippina killed her husband by means of a poison mushroom on October 13, A.D. 54.

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Nero - Marble Bust of Nero
Nero - Marble Bust of Nero. Clipart.com

Nero Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (born December 15, AD 37, died June AD 68, ruled October 13, 54 - June 9, 68)

"Although Nero's death had at first been welcomed with outbursts of joy, it roused varying emotions, not only in the city among the senators and people and the city soldiery, but also among all the legions and the generals; for the secret of empire was now disclosed, that an emperor could be made elsewhere than at Rome."
-Tacitus Histories I.4
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Emperor Galba
Emperor Galba. © British Museum Coin Collection and portableantiquities

One of the emperors during the year of the four emperors. Galba ruled from June 8, A.D. 68 – January 15, A.D. 69.

Servius Galba was born December 24, 3 B.C., in Tarracina, the son of C. Sulpicius Galba and Mummia Achaica. He was adopted by Livia, the mother of Tiberius. Galba served in civil and military positions throughout the reigns of the Julio-Claudian emperors, but when he became aware that Nero wanted him killed, he rebelled. Galba's agents won over to their side Nero's praetorian prefect. After Nero committed suicide, Galba became emperor, coming to Rome in October 68, in the company of Otho, governor of Lusitania. Galba antagonized many, including Otho, who promised financial rewards to the praetorians in exchange for their support. They declared Otho emperor on January 15, 69, and killed Galba.

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Vitellius. Clipart.com

One of the emperors during the year of the four emperors, 69 from April 17 – December 22.

Aulus Vitellius was born in September A.D. 15. and spent his youth at Capri. He was on friendly terms with the last three Julio-Claudians and advanced to proconsul of North Africa. He was also a member of two priesthoods, including the Arval brotherhood. Galba appointed him governor of Lower Germany in 68. Vitellus' troops proclaimed him emperor the next year instead of swearing their allegiance to Galba. In April, the soldiers in Rome and the Senate swore their allegiance to Vitellius. Vitellius made himself consul for life and pontifex maximus. By July, the soldiers of Egypt were supporting Vespasian. Otho's troops and others supported the Flavians, who marched into Rome. Vitellius met his end by being tortured on the Scalae Gemoniae, killed and dragged by a hook into the Tiber.

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Imperator Marcus Otho Caesar Augustus
Bust of Imperator Marcus Otho Caesar Augustus. Clipart.com

Otho was one of the emperors during the year of the four emperors. Otho ruled during A.D. 69, from January 15 to April 16.

Imperator Marcus Otho Caesar Augustus (Marcus Salvius Otho, born on 28 April A. D. 32 and died on 16 April A.D. 69) of Etruscan ancestry and the son of a Roman knight, was emperor of Rome in A.D. 69. He had entertained hopes of being adopted by Galba whom he had helped, but then turned against Galba. After Otho's soldiers proclaimed him emperor on January 15, 69, he had Galba assassinated. Meanwhile the troops in Germany proclaimed Vitellius emperor. Otho offered to share the power and to make Vitellius his son-in-law, but that was not in the cards. After Otho's defeat at Bedriacum on April 14, it is thought that shame led Otho to plan his suicide. He was succeeded by Vitellius.

Read more about Otho

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Sestertius of Vespasian commemorating the capture of Judaea.
Sestertius of Vespasian commemorating the capture of Judaea. Public Domain. Courtesy of Wikipedia.

Vespasian was the first of the Flavian Dynasty of Roman emperors. He ruled from July 1, A.D. 69 to June 23, 79.

Titus Flavius Vespasianus was born in A.D. 9, and ruled as emperor from A.D. 69 until his death 10 years later. He was succeeded by his son Titus. His parents, of the equestrian class, were T. Flavius Sabinus and Vespasia Polla. Vespasian married Flavia Domitilla with whom he had a daughter and two sons, Titus and Domitian, both of whom became emperors.

Following a revolt in Judaea in A.D. 66, Nero gave Vespasian a special commission to take care ot it. Following the suicide of Nero, Vespasian swore allegiance to his successors, but then revolted with the governor of Syria in spring of 69. He left the siege of Jerusalem to Titus. On December 20, Vespasian arrived in Rome and Vitellius was dead. Vespasian launched a building plan and restoration of the city of Rome at a time when its wealth had been delpleted by civil wars and irresponsible leadership. Vespasian reckoned that he needed 40 billion sesterces. He inflated the currency and increased provincial taxation. He also gave money to insolvent senators so they could keep their positions.

Vespasian died of natural causes on June 23, A.D. 79.

Source: DIR Titus Flavius Vespasianus (A.D. 69-79), by John Donahue and "Vespasian's Patronage of Education and the Arts," by M. St. A. Woodside. Transactions and Proceedings of the American Philological Association, Vol. 73. (1942), pp. 123-129.

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Imperator Titus Caesar Vespasianus Augustus
Imperator Titus Caesar Vespasianus Augustus Imperator Titus Caesar Vespasianus Augustus. Clipart.com

Titus was the second of the Flavian emperors and the older son of Emperor Vespasian. Titus ruled from June 24, 79 to September 13, 81.

Titus, the older brother of Domitian, and the older son of the Emperor Vespasian and his wife Domitilla, was born December 30 around 41 A.D. He grew up in the company of Britannicus, son of the Emperor Claudius, and shared his training. This meant Titus had enough military training and was ready to be a legatus legionis when his father Vespasian received his Judaean command. While in Judaea, Titus fell in love with Berenice, daughter of Herod Agrippa. She later came to Rome where Titus continued his affair with her until he became emperor. When Vespasian died on June 24, 79, Titus became emperor. He lived another 26 months.

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Domitian Denarius
Imperator Caesar Domitianus Germanicus Augustus Domitian. © Trustees of the British Museum, produced by Natalia Bauer for the Portable Antiquities Scheme

Domitian was the last of the Flavian emperors. Domitian ruled from October 14, 81- September 8, 96. (More below....)

Domitian was born in Rome on October 24 A.D. 51, to the future emperor Vespasian. His brother Titus was about 10 years his senior and joined their father on his military campaign in Judaea while Domitian remained in Rome. In about the year 70, Domitian married Domitia Longina, daughter of Gnaeus Domitius Corbulo. Domitian did not receive real power until his older brother died. Then he gained imperium (real Roman power), the title Augustus, tribunician power, the office of the pontifex maximus, and the title of pater patriae. He later took the role of censor. Although the economy of Rome had suffered in recent decades and his father had devalued the currency, Domitian was able to raise it slightly (first he raised and then he reduced the increase) for the duration of his tenure. He raised the amount of taxes paid by the provinces. Domitian extended power to equestrians and had several members of the senatorial class executed. After his assassination (September 8, A.D. 96), the Senate had his memory erased (damnatio memoriae).

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Nerva. Public Domain. Courtesy of Wikipedia.

Nerva ruled from September 18, A.D. 96 to January 27, 98.

Marcus Cocceius Nerva was the first of the five good emperors (those sandwiched between bad emperors Domitian and Commodus). Nerva was a 60-year-old senator whose support came from the Senate. To gain Praetorian favor, Nerva appointed Trajan his successor.

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Sestertius showing Trajan
Sestertius of the Emperor Trajan. Public Domain. Courtesy of Wikipedia.

Trajan ruled from January 28, 98 to August 9, 117

Marcus Ulpius Nerva Traianus, was born at Italica, in Spain, on September 18, A.D. 53. He spent most of his life on campaigns and was named optimus 'best' by the Senate. After having appointed Hadrian his successor, Trajan died while returning to Italy from the east, on 9 August A.D. 117.

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Hadrian. Clipart.com

Hadrian ruled from August 10, 117 to July 10, 138.

Hadrian, born in Italica, Spain, on January 24, 76, was the second century Roman emperor who is known for his many building projects, cities named Hadrianopolis (Adrianopolis) after him, and the famous wall across Britain designed to keep the barbarians out of Roman Britain (Hadrian's Wall). Despite all he did, were it not for his successor's efforts, Hadrian would not have made it to the list of the 5 good emperors.

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Antoninus Pius

Antoninus Pius
Antoninus Pius. Public Domain. Courtesy of Wikipedia.

Antoninus Pius ruled from July 11, 138 to March 7, 161.

When Hadrian's adopted son Verus died, he adopted Antoninus Pius (born on September 19, 86, near Lanuvium) as son and successor. As part of the deal, Antoninus Pius adopted the future Emperor Marcus Aurelius. When Hadrian died, Antoninus demonstrated such piety towards his adopted father that he earned the name "pius." Antoninus Pius completed and restored earlier building projects rather than starting major ones of his own.

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Marcus Aurelius

Denarius of Marcus Aurelius
Denarius of Marcus Aurelius. Public Domain. Courtesy of Wikipedia.

Marcus Aurelius ruled from March 8, 161 to March 17, 180.

The second of Gibbon's Antonine pair was Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (born April 26, 121), Stoic philosopher and Roman emperor. His philosophical writings are known as the Meditations. He is considered the last of the five good emperors and was succeeded by his son, the infamous Roman emperor Commodus.

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Lucius Verus

Lucius Verus from the Louvre
Lucius Verus from the Louvre. Public Domain. Courtesy of Wikipedia.

Lucius Verus was co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius from March 8, 161 to 169.

Lucius Ceionius Commodus Verus Armeniacus was born on December 15, 130 and died in 169 possibly of the Antonine Plague.

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Bust of Commodus as Hercules, from Musei Capitolini, Rome, Italy.
Commodus posing as Hercules Bust of Commodus as Hercules. Public Domain. Courtesy of Wikipedia.

Commodus ruled from 177 to December 31, 192.

Marcus Aurelius Commodus Antoninus (August 31, 161 to December 31, 192) was the son of the last of the "5 good emperors," Marcus Aurelius, but Commodus wasn't so good. Assassination ended his frightening reign.

Commodus was one of the excessive emperors who ate, drank, and spent too much. His sexual proclivities offended the Romans. He ordered many people killed and tortured. He fought in possibly as many as 1000 (probably not, though) gladiatorial contests where his opponents wielded blunted weapons. He also killed wild beasts in the amphitheater. Towards the end of his reign, he renamed the months for aspects of himself, which was fitting since he considered himself to be a god. When he was killed, his body was hooked and dragged into the Tiber -- a way to disgrace him posthumously, but his successor had him buried properly. The Senate erased the public inscriptions for Commodus (damnatio memoriae).

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Pertinax. © Trustees of the British Museum, produced by Natalia Bauer for the Portable Antiquities Scheme

Pertinax was Roman emperor in 193 for 86 days.

Publius Helvius Pertinax was born on August 1, 126 in Alba, Italy to a freedman, and died on March 28, 193. An urban prefect, Pertinax was made emperor the day after the emperor Commodus was assassinated on December 31, 192. He was killed by the Praetorian Guard and replaced by Didius Julianus.

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Didius Julianus

Didius Julianus
Didius Julianus. Clipart.com

Didius Julianus ruled from March 28, 193 to June 1, 193.

Marcus Didius Salvius Julianus Severus was born in 133 or 137 and died in 193. His successor Septimius Severus had him executed.

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Septimius Severus

Statue of Septimius Severus
Statue of Septimius Severus at the British Museum. Height: 198.000 cm. Roman, about AD 193-200 Found at Alexandria, Egypt. CC Flickr User cubby_t_bear

Septimius Severus ruled the Roman Empire from April 9, 193 to February 4, 211.

Lucius Septimius Severus was born in Leptis Magna, on April 11, 146 and died in York, February 4, 211. Septimius Severus was the first of the Roman emperors born in Africa.

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Roman Emperor Caracalla

Severan Dynasty showing Julia Domna, Septimius Severus, and Caracalla, but no Geta.
Severan Dynasty showing Caracalla's parents, Julia Domna and Septimius Severus, Caracalla, and a rubbed out spot where Caracalla's brother Geta was once. Public Domain. Courtesy of Wikipedia.

Caracalla was Roman Emperor from February 4, 211 – April 8, 217.

Lucius Septimius Bassianus (changed to Marcus Aurelius Antoninus when he was 7), was born at Lugdunum,(Lyons, France) on April 4, 186 to Septimius Severus and Julia Domna. When Septimius Severus died in 211, Caracalla and his brother Geta became co-emperors, until Caracalla had his brother killed. Caracalla was assassinated while en route to campaign in Persia.

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Elagabalus. Clipart.com

Elagabalus ruled from 218 to March 11, 222.

Elagabalus or Heliogabalus was born c. 203 Varius Avitus Bassus (or Varius Avitus Bassianus Marcus Aurelius Antoninus). He was a member of the Severan dynasty. The Historia Augusta says Elagabalus and his mother were mudered in the latrine and tossed into the Tiber.

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Roman Emperor Macrinus
Roman Emperor Macrinus. Clipart.com

Macrinus was emperor from April 217-218. (More below.)

Marcus Opellius Macrinus, from the African province of Mauretania (Algeria), was born in about 164 and served as emperor for 14 months. Caracalla appointed him to be prefect of the Praetorian Guard. Macrinus may have been involved in the murder of Caracalla. He is the first Roman emperor who was not from the senatorial class.

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Alexander Severus

Roman Emperor Alexander Severus
Alexander Severus. Clipart.com

Alexander Severus was Roman emperor from 222 to c. March 18, 235.

Marcus Aurelius Severus Alexander (October 1, 208–March 18, 235). He was the last of the Syrian emperors. Alexander Severus was assassinated.

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The Humiliation of the Emperor Valerian by the Persian King Sapor by Hans Holbein the Younger.
The Humiliation of the Emperor Valerian by the Persian King Sapor by Hans Holbein the Younger, c. 1521. Pen and Ink drawing. Public Domain. Courtesy of Wikipedia.

Valerian was Roman emperor from 253-260.

Publius Licinius Valerianus was born c. 200. Valerian was captured and killed while attempting to make a treaty with the Persian king Sapor.

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Emperor Aurelian
Emperor Aurelian. Clipart.com

Aurelian ruled from 270-275.

Lucius Domitius Aurelianus was born in Pannonia on September 9, 214 and died on September 275. Aurelian was on his way to campaign in Persia against the Sassanids when he was assassinated in Thrace. When he died, it is possible that his wife, Ulpia Severina, served as empress until Marcus Claudius Tacitus was installed.

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Diocletian. Public Domain. Courtesy of Wikipedia.

Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus) was Roman Emperor from November 20, 284 to May 1, 305. (More below.)

Diocletian (c. 245-c. 312) came from Dalmatia (modern Croatia). Of low birth, he rose to prominence through a successful military career. As emperor, he increased the number of troops and installed them along the empire's borders. War with Persia during his reign led to Roman territorial gain along that border.

Diocletian is held responsible for persecutions of Manichaeans and Christians, although soon after, Constantine would become emperor and support Christianity. He was also a reformer.

Diocletian ended the "Crisis of the Third Century" (235-284) by giving up sole control of the Empire, thereby ending the Principate and starting the Dominate (rare), from the word dominus 'lord' now used to describe the emperor. Diocletian set up the rule by 4 known as the Tetrarchy. Instead of dying in office, as all earlier emperors had done, Diocletian abdicated and retired to his palace at Split where he gardened.

Although he split the empire and gave up his post, Diocletian was not a modest emperor. Kneeling before the emperor to kiss his hem started with Diocletian. He adopted other signs of royalty from Persia, as well. Edward Gibbon paints a lavish picture of his accessories:

"Their principal distinction was the Imperial or military robe of purple; whilst the senatorial garment was marked by a broad, and the equestrian by a narrow, band or stripe of the same honorable color. The pride, or rather the policy, of Diocletian, engaged that artful prince to introduce the stately magnificence of the court of Persia. He ventured to assume the diadem, an ornament detested by the Romans as the odious ensign of royalty, and the use of which had been considered as the most desperate act of the madness of Caligula. It was no more than a broad white fillet set with pearls, which encircled the emperor's head. The sumptuous robes of Diocletian and his successors were of silk and gold; and it is remarked with indignation, that even their shoes were studded with the most precious gems. The access to their sacred person was every day rendered more difficult by the institution of new forms and ceremonies."


  • "Diocletian" Oxford Dictionary of the Classical World. Ed. John Roberts. Oxford University Press, 2007.
  • "The Legions of Diocletian and Constantine"
    H. M. D. Parker
    The Journal of Roman Studies, Vol. 23, (1933), pp. 175-189
  • "Diocletian's Palace at Split"
    A. J. Brothers
    Greece & Rome, Second Series, Vol. 19, No. 2 (Oct., 1972), pp. 175-186.
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Bronze Follis of Galerius
Bronze Follis of Galerius. Public Domain. Courtesy of Wikipedia.

Galerius was emperor from 305 to May 5, 311.

Gaius Galerius Valerius Maximianus was born c. 250 in Dacia Aureliana. During the formation of the tetrarchy, in 293, Galerius was made Caesar along with Constantius Chlorus. Galerius died of natural causes.

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Maximinus Daia

Roman Emperor Maximinus
Maximinus. Clipart.com

Maximinus was Roman emperor from 305 to 313.

Gaius Valerius Galerius Maximinus was born on November 20, c. 270 in Dacia, the nephew of Galerius, and died in the summer of 313.

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Constantine I

Cameo of the Crowning of Constantine
Cameo of the Crowning of Constantine. Public Domain. Courtesy of Wikipedia.

Constantine I was emperor from July 25, 306 - May 22, 337.

Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus was born on February 27, c. 280 and died on May 22, 337 was proclaimed Augustus by his troops at Eboracum (York, England). Constantine is known as "the Great" because of what he did for Christianity. Constantine was the first emperor to convert to Christianity.

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Julian the Apostate

Julian the Apostate
Emperor Julian the Apostate. Public Domain. Courtesy of Wikipedia.

Julian ruled the Roman Empire from 3 November 361 - June 26, 363.

Julian the Apostate (331–June 26, 363) was of the line of Constantine, but he was not a Christian and tried to re-institute the old pagan religions. He died during his campaign against the Sassanids.

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Valentinian I

Coin of Valentinian
Coin of Valentinian. Clipart.com

Valentinian I ruled from 364 to November 17, 365.

Flavius Valentinianus of Pannonia lived from 321 - November 17, 375 when he died of natural causes -- a burst blood vessel.

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Valentinian II

Marble Statue of Valentinian II
Marble Statue of Valentinian II. Public Domain. Courtesy of Wikipedia.

Valentinian II ruled as Roman emperor from 375-May 15, 392 in control of Italy, part of Illyricum, and Africa, under the regency of his mother Justina.

Flavius Valentinianus (of Milan) lived from 371 - 392. Valentinian's half-brother Gratian ruled the western provinces beyond the Alps. Theodosius I was the Eastern emperor.

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Theodosius I
Theodosius I. © British Museum Coin Collection and portableantiquities

Theodosius was Roman Emperor from 379-395.

Flavius Theodosius was born in Spain on January 11, 347 and died on January 17, 395 of vascular disease.

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Justinian Mosaic in Ravenna.
Justinian mosaic from the Basilica of San Vitale, in Ravenna, Italy. Public Domain. Courtesy of Wikipedia.

Justinian I was Eastern Roman Emperor from 527-565.

Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus was born c. 482/483 and died on November 13 or 14, 565. He was the second member of the Justinian Dynasty.