<p>The Celts, an Iron Age group, began to immigrate into the region of modern France in great numbers from c.800 BCE, and over the next few centuries dominated the area. The Romans believed that ‘Gaul’, which included France, had over sixty separate Celtic groups.</p>Gaul was an ancient region which included France and parts of Belgium, West Germany and Italy. Having seized control of the Italian regions and a southern coastal strip in France, Rome sent Julius Caesar to conquer the region and bring it under control in 58 BCE, partly to stop Gallic raiders and German incursions. Between 58-50 BCE Caesar fought the Gallic tribes which united against him under Vercingetorix, who was beaten at the siege of Alésia. Assimilation into the Empire followed, and by the mid first century CE Gallic aristocrats could sit in the Roman Senate.In the early part of the fifth century groups of Germanic peoples crossed the Rhine and moved west into Gaul, where they were settled by the Romans as self-governing groups. The Franks settled in the north, the Burgundians in the south east and the Visigoths in the south west (although mainly in Spain). The extent to which the settlers Romanized or adopted Roman political/military structures is open to debate, but Rome soon lost control.The Franks moved into Gaul during the later Roman Empire. Clovis inherited the kingship of the Salian Franks in the late fifth century, a kingdom based in northeast France and Belgium. By his death this kingdom had spread south and west over much of France, incorporating the rest of the Franks. His dynasty, the Merovingians, would rule the region for the next two centuries. Clovis selected Paris as his capital and is sometimes regarded as the founder of France.Fought somewhere, now precisely unknown, between Tours and Poitiers, an army of Franks and Burgundians under Charles Martel defeated the forces of the Umayyad Caliphate. Historians are much less certain now than they used to be that this battle alone stopped the military expansion of Islam into the region as a whole, but the result secured Frankish control of the area and Charles’ leadership of the Franks.<p>As the Merovingians declined, a line of nobility called Carolingians took their place. Charlemagne, which literally means Charles the Great, succeeded to the throne of a portion of the Frankish lands in 751. Two decades later he was sole ruler, and by 800 he was crowned Emperor of the Romans by the Pope on Christmas Day. Important to the history of both France and Germany, Charles is often labelled as Charles I in lists of French monarchs. <a href="https://www.thoughtco.com/charlemagne-king-of-the-franks-1788691" data-component="link" data-source="inlineLink" data-type="internalLink" data-ordinal="1">Read more</a>.</p><p>After a period of civil war, Charlemagne’s three grandsons agreed a division of the Empire in the Treaty of Verdun in 843. Part of this settlement was the creation of West Francia (Francia Occidentalis) under Charles II, a kingdom in the west of the Carolingian lands which covered much of the western part of modern France. Parts of eastern France came under the control of Emperor Lothar I in Francia Media.</p><p>After a period of heavy fragmentation within the regions of modern France, the Capet family were rewarded with the title “Duke of the Franks”. In 987 Hugh Capet, son of the first Duke, ousted rival Charles of Lorraine and declared himself King of West Francia. It was this kingdom, notionally large but with a small power base, which would grow, slowly incorporating the neighbouring areas, into the powerful kingdom of France during the Middle Ages. <a href="https://www.thoughtco.com/hugh-capet-and-the-origins-of-france-1221307" data-component="link" data-source="inlineLink" data-type="internalLink" data-ordinal="1">Read more</a>.</p>When the English crown inherited the Angevin lands, forming what has been called the “Angevin Empire” (although there was no emperor), they held more land in “France” than the French crown. Philip II changed this, winning back some of the English crown’s continental lands in an expansion of both France’s power and domain. Philip II (also called Philip Augustus) also changed the regal name, from King of the Franks to King of France.During the twelfth century a non-canonical branch of Christianity called the Cathars took hold in the south of France. They were deemed heretics by the main church, and Pope Innocent III urged both the King of France and the Count of Toulouse to take action. After a papal legate investigating the Cathars was murdered in 1208, with the Count implicated, Innocent ordered a crusade against the region. Northern French nobles fought those of Toulouse and Provence, causing great destruction and damaging the Cather church greatly.A dispute over English holdings in France led to Edward III of England claiming the French throne; a century of related warfare followed. The French low point occurred when Henry V of England won a string of victories, conquered great chunks of the country and had himself recognised as heir to the French throne. However, a rally under the French claimant eventually led to the English being thrown out of the continent, with only Calais left of their holdings.Louis expanded the borders of France, re-imposing control over Boulonnais, Picardy, and Burgundy, inheriting control of Maine and Provence and taking power in France-Comté and Artois. Politically he broke the control of his rival princes and began centralising the French state, helping transform it from a medieval institution to a modern one.With royal control of France now largely secure, the Valois monarchy looked to Europe, engaging in a war with the rival Habsburg dynasty – the de facto royal house of the Holy Roman Empire – which took place in Italy, initially over French claims to the throne of Naples. Fought with mercenaries and providing an outlet for the nobles of France, the wars were concluded with the Treaty of Cateau-Cambrésis.A political struggle between noble houses exacerbated a growing sense of hostility between the French Protestants, called Huguenots, and Catholics. When men acting on the orders of the Duke of Guise massacred a Huguenot congregation in 1562 civil war erupted. Several wars were fought in quick succession, the fifth triggered by massacres of Huguenots in Paris and other towns on the eve of Saint Bartholomew&#39;s Day. The wars ended after the Edict of Nantes granted religious toleration to the Huguenots.Armand-Jean du Plessis, Cardinal Richelieu, is perhaps best known outside France as one of the &#34;bad guys&#34; in adaptations of <i>The Three Musketeers</i>. In real life he acted as chief minister of France, fighting and succeeding to increase the monarch’s power and break the military strength of the Huguenots and nobles. Although he didn’t innovate much, he proved himself a man of great ability.When Louis XIV succeeded to the throne in 1642 he was a minor, and the kingdom was governed by both a regent and a new Chief Minister: Cardinal Jules Mazarin. Opposition to the power that Mazarin wielded led to two rebellions: the Fronde of the Parliament and the Fronde of the Princes. Both were defeated and royal control strengthened. When Mazarin died in 1661, Louis XIV took over full control of the kingdom.Louis was the apogee of French absolute monarchy, a vastly powerful king who, after a regency while he was a minor, ruled personally for 54 years. He re-ordered France around himself and his court, winning wars abroad and stimulating French culture to such an extent that the nobilities of other countries copied France. He has been criticised for allowing other powers in Europe to grow in strength and eclipse France, but he has also been called the high point of French monarchy. He was nicknamed &#34;The Sun King&#34; for the vitality and glory of his reign.A financial crisis prompted King Louis XVI to call an Estates General to pass new tax laws. Instead, the Estates General declared itself a National Assembly, suspended tax and seized French sovereignty. As France’s political and economic structures were reshaped, pressures from inside and outside France saw first the declaration of a republic and then government by Terror. A Directory of five men plus elected bodies took charge in 1795, before a coup brought Napoleon Bonaparte to power.Napoleon took advantage of the opportunities offered by both the French Revolution and its revolutionary wars to rise to the top, seizing power in a coup, before declaring himself Emperor of France in 1804. The next decade saw a continuation of the warfare which had allowed Napoleon to rise, and at the start Napoleon was largely successful, expanding the borders and influence of France. However, after the invasion of Russia failed in 1812 France was pushed back, before Napoleon was defeated finally at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815. The monarchy was then restored.An attempt to agitate for liberal reforms, coupled with growing dissatisfaction in the monarchy, led to an outbreak of demonstrations against the king in 1848. Faced with the choice of deploying troops or fleeing, he abdicated and fled. A republic was declared and Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, relative of Napoleon I, was elected president. Only four years later he was proclaimed emperor of a “Second Empire” in a further revolution. However, a humiliating loss in the Franco-Prussian war of 1870, when Napoleon was captured, shattered confidence in the regime; a Third Republic was declared in a bloodless revolution in 1870.Parisians, angered by a Prussian siege of Paris, the terms of the peace treaty which ended the Franco-Prussian war and their treatment by the government (which tried to disarm the National Guard in Paris to stall trouble), rose in rebellion. They formed a council to lead them, called the Commune of Paris, and attempted reform. The government of France invaded the capital to restore order, prompting a short period of conflict. The Commune has been mythologized by socialists and revolutionaries ever since.A period of rapid commercial, social and cultural development as (relative) peace and further industrial development wrought even greater changes upon society, bringing in mass consumerism. The name, which literally means &#34;Beautiful Age&#34;, is largely a retrospective title given by the wealthier classes who benefitted most from the era.Refusing a demand from Germany in 1914 to declare neutrality during a Russo-German conflict, France mobilised troops. Germany declared war and invaded, but was stopped short of Paris by Anglo-French forces. A great swathe of French soil was turned into a trench system as the war bogged down, and only narrow gains were made until 1918, when Germany finally gave way and capitulated. Over a million Frenchmen died and over 4 million were wounded.France declared war on Nazi Germany in September 1939; in May 1940 the Germans attacked France, skirting the Maginot Line and quickly defeating the country. Occupation followed, with the northern third controlled by Germany and the south under the collaborative Vichy regime headed by Marshal Pétain. In 1944, after Allied landings at D-Day, France was liberated, and Germany finally defeated in 1945. A Fourth Republic was then declared.On January 8, 1959 the Fifth Republic came into being. Charles de Gaulle, hero of World War 2 and heavy critic of the Fourth Republic, was the chief driving force behind the new constitution which gave the presidency more powers compared to the National Assembly; de Gaulle became the first president of the new era. France remains under the government of the Fifth Republic.Discontent exploded in May 1968 as the latest in a series of rallies by radical students turned violent and was broken up by the Police. Violence spread, barricades went up and a commune was declared. Other students joined the movement, as did striking workers, and soon radicals in other cities followed. The movement lost ground as leaders became afraid of causing too extreme a rebellion, and the threat of military support, coupled with some employment concessions and de Gaulle’s decision to hold an election, helped bring events to a close. Gaullists dominated the election results, but France had been shocked at how quickly events had occurred.