Key Signature Tables

Complete Scale Outline With Relative and Parallel Keys

Get quick info on each musical key, including relative minors, enharmonic signatures, and the nonexistent keys.

 

Major Key Signatures

 

Major
Scale
RelativeNo. of SharpsEnharmonic
Key Signature
Parallel Key
C majA min0 C minor
     
G majE min1 G minor
D majB min2 D minor
A majF# min3 A minor
E majC# min4 E minor
B majG# min5Cb major / Ab minB minor
F# majD# min6Gb major / Eb minF# minor
C# majA# min7Db major / Bb minC# minor
  No. of
Flats
  
F majD min1 F minor
Bb majG min2 Bb minor
Eb majC min3 Eb minor
Ab majF min4 Ab minor
Db majBb min5C# major / A# minNo Db minor (C# min)
Gb majEb min6F# major / D# minNo Gb minor (F# min)
Cb majAb min7B major / G# minNo Cb minor (B min)

 

Minor Key Signatures

 

Minor
Scale
Relative
Key
No. of
Sharps
Enharmonic
Key Signature
Parallel Key
A minC maj0 A major
     
E minG maj1 E major
B minD maj2 B major
F# minA maj3 F# major
C# minE maj4 C# major
G# minB maj5Ab minor / Cb majNo G# major (Ab maj)
D# minF# maj6Eb minor / Gb majNo D# major (Eb maj)
A# minC# maj7Bb minor / Db majNo A# major (Bb maj)
  No. of
Flats
  
D minF maj1 D major
G minBb maj2 G major
C minEb maj3 C major
F minAb maj4 F major
Bb minDb maj5A# minor / C# majorBb major
Eb minGb maj6D# minor / F# majorEb major
Ab minCb maj7G# minor / B majorAb major

 

The Pattern of Accidentals

Memorizing the order in which the accidentals appear in the key signatures will ease both sight-reading and musical composition, and help strengthen your understanding of the diatonic scale. You'll see this pattern everywhere in music theory, so it's valuable to to know (notice in the examples below that the pattern is simply reversed):

  • Sharps (#): F     C     G     D     A     E     B
  • Flats (b): B     E     A     D     G     C     F

 

Help memorizing: Mnemonic devices for the Pattern of Accidentals

 

Key Signatures In Depth

• Understanding the Key Signatures
Everything you need to know about the accidentals & key signatures.

• 
There are always two keys that relate to one another more than any other key.

Find out what this means.

• Comparing Major & Minor
Major and minor are often described in terms of feelings or mood. The ear tends to perceive major and minor as having contrasting personalities; a contrast that is most obvious when the two are played back to back. Learn more about major and minor scales and keys.

• The Circle of Fifths (Musiced.about.com)
Visual guide to all the scales and their relatives.

• Take the Key Signature Quiz
Test your ability to identify the keys.

 

More on Enharmony

• The 6 Enharmonic Key Signatures
If you’re familiar with the circle of fifths (see above) or you just know your way around the key signatures, you may have noticed a few anomalies. Some keys – like B-sharp and F-flat major – are seemingly absent, while others go by two names

• The Inefficient Keys
The circle of fifths shows only the working scales. But, if we expand on its pattern, we can see that it’s actually more of an infinite spiral, so there’s no end to the possibilities of musical scales.

• Table of Working & Non-Working Keys
See a clear visual of which keynotes are workable and which would be redundant.

 

Piano Recitals & Performing

• Choosing Your Piano Recital Song
• On-Stage Etiquette for Musicians
• Audience Etiquette to Know!
• Getting a Grip on Stage Fright

 

Beginner Musical Symbols

• Accidentals & Double-Accidentals
• Reading the Time Signature
• Musical Repeat Signs
• How to Play Dotted Notes
 

Playing Piano Chords

• Left Hand Piano Chord Fingering
• Chord Types & Symbols
• Easy Piano Chords With Illustrations
• Learn 7th & Dominant Piano Chords