Contributors to ThoughtCo are independent contractors who create and publish content on ThoughtCo.com and affiliated sites and email properties (collectively, the "Site"). Contributors
are compensated in part based on the amount of content that they create and/or the page views of the Site containing the content they create. ThoughtCo
contractually requires that its contributors maintain high ethical standards and all legal requirements, including Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
disclosure requirements. The contributors, and not ThoughtCo, are responsible for their own compliance with these standards. These contributors and other
writers provide advice and information that they intend to be not only practical but trustworthy. These contributors and other writers write and are
ThoughtCo.com and its affiliated sites (the “Site”) are owned and operated by About, Inc. and its affiliates ("ThoughtCo", the "Company", "we", or
The information available through the Site is provided solely for informational
purposes on an “as is” basis at user’s sole risk. ThoughtCo makes no guarantees as to the accurateness, quality, or completeness of the information and ThoughtCo shall not be responsible or
liable for any errors, omissions, or inaccuracies in the information or for any user’s reliance on the information. User is solely responsible for verifying
the information as being appropriate for user’s personal use.
effective when we post the changes. Your continued use of the Site means you agree to and accept the changes.
Your Limited License to our Intellectual Property
The materials used and displayed on the Site, including but not limited to text, software, photographs, graphics, illustrations and artwork, video, music
and sound, and names, logos, trademarks and service marks, are the property of ThoughtCo, About, Inc., or its affiliates or licensors and are protected
by copyright, trademark and other laws. Any such content may be used solely for your personal, non-commercial use. You agree not to modify, reproduce,
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The terms ThoughtCo, www.ThoughtCo.com and other ThoughtCo trademarks and services marks, and all related names, logos, product
and service names, designs and slogans are trademarks of ThoughtCo or its affiliates or licensors. You may not use such marks without the prior written
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We have no obligation to, and you should not expect us to, review content on our Site, including User Contributions (defined below) or contributions by
our independent contributors.
About our Contributors
ThoughtCo seeks out content providers in particular subject matters as independent contractor contributors to the Site. ThoughtCo does not represent or
guarantee that any contributor has achieved any particular level of expertise or knowledge or has any specific qualifications or credentials as to the subject matter to which their contributions relate. To the extent we refer to each of these contributors as an expert, you must
understand that we rely on the information they provide us and we are not obligated to independently verify or attempt to confirm any information they provide,
nor their qualifications or credentials. ThoughtCo is also not obligated to monitor or independently research or verify any content they contribute.
Contributors, even if characterized as an expert, are not employees of ThoughtCo or its affiliates, and ThoughtCo cannot and does not represent or
warrant the accuracy, completeness or truthfulness of the qualifications or credentials of any contributor, nor of any other users of the Site.
Please do not rely on Site content, including User Contributions and content from our independent contractor contributors. Content is provided for
general information purposes only and can never take into account your unique, personal circumstances and needs. You acknowledge and agree that any
reliance or actions you take in violation of your agreement with us shall be at your sole and exclusive risk and ThoughtCo shall have no
responsibility or liability to you whatsoever. You also acknowledge and agree that communications on or through the Site, whether with content
providers or other users, are at your own risk and are not covered by any privilege or confidentiality obligation that might apply if you were to
obtain your own professional advice.
Additionally, you agree not to:
The Site may contain message boards, chat rooms, personal web pages or profiles, forums, review and ratings sections, bulletin boards and other interactive features (collectively,
"Interactive Services") that allow users to post, submit, publish, display or transmit to other users or other persons (hereinafter, "post") comments, content or other
materials (collectively, "User Contributions") on or through the Site.
If you voluntarily disclose personal information (e.g., user name, email address) on the Site, such as on a forum, chat room or on any other user or
member-generated pages, that information can be viewed in search engines, collected and used by others and may result in unsolicited contact from other
parties. We strongly advise that you not post any personal or other sensitive information on our Site.
Any User Contribution you post to the Site will be considered non-confidential and non-proprietary. By providing any User Contribution on the Site, you
grant us and our affiliates and service providers, and each of their and our respective licensees, successors and assigns the perpetual right to use, reproduce,
modify, perform, display, distribute and otherwise disclose to third parties any such material for any purpose.
You represent and warrant that:
You understand and acknowledge that you are responsible for any User Contributions you submit or contribute, and you, not the Company, have full
responsibility for such content, including its legality, reliability, accuracy and appropriateness. We are not responsible, or liable to any third party,
for the content or accuracy of any User Contributions posted by you or any other user of the Site.
We have the right to:
Without limiting the foregoing, we have the right to fully cooperate with any law enforcement authorities or court order requesting or directing us to
disclose the identity or other information related to anyone posting any materials on or through the Site. YOU WAIVE AND HOLD HARMLESS THE COMPANY AND ITS
AFFILIATES, AGENTS, LICENSEES AND SERVICE PROVIDERS FROM ANY CLAIMS RESULTING FROM ANY ACTION TAKEN BY ANY OF THE FOREGOING PARTIES DURING OR AS A RESULT
OF ITS INVESTIGATIONS AND FROM ANY ACTIONS TAKEN AS A CONSEQUENCE OF INVESTIGATIONS BY EITHER THE COMPANY/SUCH PARTIES OR LAW ENFORCEMENT AUTHORITIES.
We cannot and do not undertake to review all material before it is posted on the Site, and cannot ensure prompt removal of objectionable material
after it has been posted. Accordingly, we assume no liability for any action or inaction regarding transmissions, communications or content provided by any
user or third party. We have no liability or responsibility to anyone for performance or nonperformance of the activities described in this section.
These content standards apply to any and all User Contributions and use of Interactive Services. User Contributions must in their entirety comply with all
applicable federal, state, local and international laws and regulations. Without limiting the foregoing, User Contributions must not:
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licensors and licensees (collectively, the "Indemnified Parties") from and against any and all liability and costs, including, without limitation,
reasonable attorneys' fees, incurred by the Indemnified Parties in connection with any claim arising out of (a) any User Contributions, or (b) breach by
fully and reasonably in the defense of any such claim. ThoughtCo reserves the right, at its own expense, to assume the exclusive defense and control of
any matter subject to indemnification by you.
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ANY OPINION, ADVICE OR STATEMENT ON THE SITE. THE INFORMATION, FACTS, AND OPINIONS PROVIDED ARE NO SUBSTITUTE FOR PROFESSIONAL ADVICE.
YOUR USE OF THE SITE IS AT YOUR OWN RISK. NEITHER, THOUGHTCO OR ABOUT, INC. NOR ANY OF ITS SUBSIDIARIES, DIVISIONS, AFFILIATES, AGENTS, REPRESENTATIVES
OR LICENSORS (INCLUDING OUR INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR CONTRIBUTORS) SHALL BE LIABLE TO YOU OR ANYONE ELSE FOR ANY LOSS OR INJURY OR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT,
INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, SPECIAL, PUNITIVE OR SIMILAR DAMAGES ARISING OUT OF YOUR ACCESS OR USE OF, OR YOUR INABILITY TO ACCESS OR USE, THE SITE AND THE
INFORMATION AVAILABLE ON THE SITE OR ARISING OUT OF ANY ACTION TAKEN IN RESPONSE TO OR AS A RESULT OF ANY INFORMATION AVAILABLE ON THE SITE. YOU HEREBY
WAIVE ANY AND ALL CLAIMS AGAINST THOUGHTCO, ABOUT, INC. AND ITS SUBSIDIARIES, DIVISIONS, AFFILIATES, AGENTS, REPRESENTATIVES AND LICENSORS (INCLUDING OUR
INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR CONTRIBUTORS) ARISING OUT OF YOUR USE OF THE SITE AND THE INFORMATION AVAILABLE THEREON.
We do not review or monitor any websites, advertisements, or other media linked to or available through the Site and are not responsible for the content of
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verify pricing, product quality and other information necessary to make an informed purchase. Neither ThoughtCo nor its parent or any of its
subsidiaries, divisions, affiliates, agents, representatives or licensors shall have any liability arising from your purchases of third-party products or
services based upon the information provided on the Site, and we shall not receive or review complaints regarding such purchases.
the State of New York (without regard to conflict of law principles). In the event of any such dispute, you irrevocably consent to exclusive jurisdiction
and venue in the courts located in the State of New York, County of New York.
CAUSE OF ACTION ACCRUES, OTHERWISE, SUCH CAUSE OF ACTION OR CLAIM IS PERMANENTLY BARRED AND YOU HEREBY AGREE TO WAIVE SUCH CAUSE OF ACTION OR CLAIM AFTER
waiver of such right or provision.
force and effect.
understandings, agreements, representations and warranties, both written and oral, with respect to the Site.
ThoughtCo deals with copyright infringement in accordance with the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA). You may not post, upload, or otherwise place
any content or information on the Site that belongs to a third party, unless you have the legal right to do so. If you believe in good faith that your
copyrighted work has been reproduced on our Site without authorization in a way that constitutes copyright infringement, you may notify our designated
copyright agent either by mail to Copyright Agent (Legal), About, Inc., 1500 Broadway, 6th Floor, New York, NY, 10036 or in an email to SafeHarborAgent@About.Com. This contact information is only for suspected copyright infringement. Please
include the following:
It is the policy of ThoughtCo to disable the accounts of users who repeatedly post infringing material on the Site.
The About.com system, including ThoughtCo, is covered by one or more of the following patents:
This Site is operated by About, Inc., located at 1500 Broadway, 6th Floor, New York, NY 10036.
All other feedback, comments, requests for technical support and other communications relating to the Site should be directed to: contact@ThoughtCo.com.
Requests to use and reproduce content published on ThoughtCo should be directed to: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Thank you for visiting ThoughtCo.
At ThoughtCo, we take online privacy seriously and we respect the concerns of our community of users. In this policy, we describe our privacy practices
with regard to information we collect through ThoughtCo.com and affiliated sites and email properties (collectively, the “Site”) to help you make informed decisions about how you share
information when you visit or use the Site.
We may collect information, including personally identifiable information, directly from you if you choose to provide that information. For example, you
may provide us with your name and contact information (such as an email address), date of birth, or other details of that nature, when you sign up for our
newsletters or participate in promotions or surveys on the Site.
You also may choose to provide personally identifiable information about yourself when you participate in forums or discussions or other Interactive Services on the Site. Please be
aware that information you post may be viewed or captured by anyone who visits the Site, therefore you should avoid posting sensitive or personal information that you would not want to be available to the public.
When you access the Site, we and our third-party partners and vendors may automatically collect certain information about your visit using tools such as cookies, web
beacons, and other data collecting and tracking technologies. The information collected automatically when you visit the Site may include your IP address, characteristics of
your operating system, information about your browser and system settings, data about the computer or mobile device you use to access the Site, unique
device identifiers, clickstream data (which shows the page-by-page path you take as you browse the Site), and other details that generally are not
considered personally identifiable.
as HTTP and HTML5 cookies and Flash cookies), as well as other types of local storage. For more information about cookies, you may visit
http://www.allaboutcookies.org. See the section below regarding Your choices to learn more
about how you may limit or disable cookies on your computer. If you choose to disable cookies, that could affect certain features of the Site that use
cookies to enhance their functionality.
To manage our automatic data collection, we may place tags (often referred to as “web beacons”) and other tracking mechanisms on pages on the Site, in videos, or in emails we send to you.
Web beacons are small files that link web pages to particular web servers and their cookies, and they may be used for a variety of
purposes, such as counting the number of visitors to the Site, analyzing how users navigate around the Site, assessing how many emails that we send are
actually opened and which articles or links are viewed by visitors.
We also use third-party web analytics services, such as Google Analytics, on the Site, to provide us with statistics and other information about visitors
to the Site. Click here to learn more about Google Analytics and how you may opt out.
“Do Not Track” Signals.
Your browser settings may allow you to automatically transmit a “do not track” signal to websites and online services you visit. At this time there is no
consensus among industry participants as to the meaning of “do not track” in this context. Like many other websites, ThoughtCo.com is not configured to
respond to “do not track” signals from browsers. Click here to learn more about "do not track" signals.
Finally, companies that provide certain third-party apps, tools, widgets, and plug-ins that may appear on the Site (for example, Facebook “Like” buttons)
also may use automated means to collect information regarding your interactions with these features. This information collection is subject to the privacy
policies or notices of those providers.
We may supplement the information we collect with information from outside sources in order to learn more about our users, to better tailor the content and offers we make available to you, and for other lawful business purposes. We may receive this information about you from third parties, including without limitation data resellers and advertisers. We may combine the information we receive from those other (online and offline) sources with information we collect through the Site.
We (and our partners) may use the information gathered on ThoughtCo for various purposes, including the purposes listed below. For example, if you were to contact us with a
question and provide your email address, we would use the email address you provided to respond to your inquiry. In addition, we use information we collect
from you and through the Site to:
Our agents, vendors, consultants, and other service providers may have access to information we collect through the Site to carry out work on our behalf.
addition, certain service providers may collect or access information through the Site to enable or provide services, tools, or other features available on
the Site. We also may share information:
Unsubscribe from emails. To unsubscribe from a particular newsletter, click the "unsubscribe" link at the bottom of that email newsletter. If you would like to globally opt-out
from all ThoughtCo email campaigns, please send an email to optout@ThoughtCo.com with "Unsubscribe" in the subject line.
When we send newsletters to subscribers we may allow advertisers or partners to include messages in those newsletters, or we
may send dedicated newsletters on behalf of those advertisers or partners. We may disclose your opt-out choices to third
parties so that they can honor your preferences in accordance with applicable laws.
Blocking cookies. Certain browsers may be configured to notify you when you receive cookies, or allow you to restrict or disable certain cookies. If you choose to disable
Disabling local shared objects (“Flash cookies”). We may use other kinds of local storage that function similarly,
but are stored in different parts of your computer from ordinary browser cookies. Your
browser may allow you to disable its HTML5 local storage or delete information contained in its HTML5 local storage.
Click here for details about deleting
information contained in "local shared objects" or adjusting related preferences.
Options concerning third-party ad networks.
For more information about third-party ad networks and services that use these technologies, you can visit www.aboutads.info
and click here to opt out or to learn more about your options.
You also may visit the NAI's site for additional options on how to opt out of interest-based advertising.
We maintain appropriate administrative, technical, and physical safeguards designed to protect the personal information you provide against accidental,
unlawful, or unauthorized destruction, loss, alteration, access, disclosure, or use. That said, it is not possible to guarantee the security of information
transmitted online, and you assume some risk with regard to the security of information you provide through any website, including this Site.
On this Site, we may provide links to other websites that are controlled by third parties. Linked websites may have their own privacy notices or policies,
which we strongly suggest you review. We are not responsible for the content, usage terms, privacy policies, or any other aspects of websites that we do
not own or control.
While you are visiting ThoughtCo, you may have the opportunity to participate in surveys or quizzes, or to use other interactive features, including Interactive Services, that request information about you and your opinions and preferences. Your participation in these features is entirely voluntary. If you do
choose to participate, please be aware that these features may be operated by a third party that is not controlled by ThoughtCo, and therefore the
This Site is not designed or intended for use by children, and we do not knowingly collect personal information from children under the age of 13. If we
become aware that we have collected personal information from a child under the age of 13, we will delete any such information.
If you are visiting ThoughtCo from outside the United States, please be aware that information we collect through the Site will be transferred to and
stored on our servers in the United States. By using this Site, you acknowledge and consent to the transfer and processing of your personal data in the
transferred to the United States may be different from the laws in your country of residence.
Subject to certain limits, under California law California residents may ask us to provide them with a list of the categories of personal information that
we have disclosed to third parties for those third parties’ direct marketing purposes during the preceding calendar year, as well as the identity of those
third parties. California residents may contact us as specified in the How to Contact Us section
below to make a request for this information.
If you have questions about this policy or about our privacy practices, you may contact us by emailing privacy@ThoughtCo.com. If you are a
California resident inquiring about your California privacy rights, please include “California privacy rights request” in the subject line of your email.
You may also write to:
1500 Broadway, 6th Floor
New York, NY 10036
To help us maintain the resources needed to create the quality content you deserve, we accept advertisements on our Site. We greatly value transparency
and hope that this policy leaves you feeling even more confident about the content and service we provide.
ThoughtCo maintains a distinct separation between advertising and editorial content.
Contributors and/or ThoughtCo may receive compensation for participation in third-party affiliate marketing programs, including purchases made through links to ThoughtCo’s e-commerce partners, if any. Pages on the Site containing affiliate marketing links, including product reviews, will be demarcated and/or identified with a disclaimer.
These advertising guidelines (“Guidelines”) set forth standards that govern the placement and display of advertisements and sponsored content (collectively,
“Ads”) by any advertiser, agency, or advertising technology platform (collectively, “Advertisers”). Advertisers must adhere to these Guidelines when placing
Ads, including Ads purchased under the AAAA/IAB Standard Terms and Conditions, on websites or mobile properties owned or controlled by About, Inc.,
including ThoughtCo.com (collectively, “ThoughtCo”).
These Guidelines are intended to provide general parameters for Advertisers in connection with Ad creative and content served on ThoughtCo. They are not
exhaustive and do not address every situation or issue that may arise in the course of business. Accordingly, these Guidelines are subject to change from
time to time in ThoughtCo’s sole and absolute discretion.
Advertisers are responsible for understanding and complying with all applicable laws and regulations, including FTC guidelines regarding advertising,
native advertising disclosures, endorsements, privacy, and data security. All Ad’s must be fair, truthful, and clearly distinguishable from editorial
content. Advertisers are responsible for ensuring all Ads and related claims are adequately substantiated. Further, Advertisers must adhere to ThoughtCo’s Prohibited Content Guidelines and Additional Standards set forth below, which are incorporated into and made a part of these Guidelines.
Ads served through networks or exchanges are reviewed on a regular basis and, in addition to any other remedies ThoughtCo may have, ThoughtCo reserves
the right to remove, without notice, any Ads that do not meet these Guidelines, regardless of whether the Ad was previously accepted by ThoughtCo.