Livermorium Facts - Element 116 or Lv

Livermorium Element Properties, History, and Uses

Livermorium or Lv is a synthetic radioactive element.
Livermorium or Lv is a synthetic radioactive element. Todd Helmenstine,

Livermorium (Lv) is element 116 on the periodic table of the elements. Livermorium is a highly radioactive man-made element (not observed in nature). Here's a collection of interesting facts about element 116, as well as a look at its history, properties, and uses:

Interesting Livermorium Facts

  • Livermorium was first produced in July 19, 2000 by scientists working jointly at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (USA) and Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna, Russia). At the Dubna facility, a single atom of livermorium-293 was observed from bombarding a curium-248 target with calcium-48 ions. The element 116 atom decayed into flerovium-289, via alpha decay.
  • Researchers at Lawrence Livermore had announced synthesis of element 116 in 1999, by fusing krypton-86 and lead-208 nuclei to form ununoctium-293 (element 118), which decayed into livermorium-289. However, they retracted the discovery after no one (including themselves) was able to replicate the result. In fact, in 2002, the lab announced the discovery had been based on fabricated data attributed to the principal author, Victor Ninov.
  • Element 116 was called eka-polonium, using Mendeleev's naming convention for unverified elements, or ununhexium (Uuh), using the IUPAC naming convention. Once a new element's synthesis is verified, the discoverers get the right to give it a name. The Dubna group wanted to name element 116 moscovium, after the Moscow Oblast, where Dubna is situated. The Lawrence Livermore team wanted the name livermorium (Lv), which recognizes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Livermore, California, where it is located. The city is named, in turn, for American rancher Robert Livermore, so he indirectly got an element named after him. The IUPAC approved the name livermorium on May 23, 2012.
  • Should researchers ever synthesize enough of element 116 to observe it, it's likely livermorium would be a solid metal at room temperature. Based on its position on the periodic table, the element should display chemical properties similar to those of its homologous element, polonium. Some of these chemical properties are also shared by oxygen, sulfur, selenium, and tellurium. Based on its physical and atomic data, livermorium is expected to favor the +2 oxidation state, although some activity of the +4 oxidation state may occur. The +6 oxidation state is not expected to occur at all. Livermorium is expected to have a higher melting point than polonium, yet a lower boiling point. Livermorium is expected to have a higher density than polonium.
  • Livermorium is near an island of nuclear stability, centered on copernicium (element 112) and flerovium (element 114). Elements within the island of stability decay almost exclusively via alpha decay. Livermorium lacks the neutrons to truly be on the "island," yet its heavier isotopes decay more slowly than its lighter ones.
  • The molecule livermorane (LvH2) would be the heaviest homolog of water.

Livermorium Atomic Data

Element Name/Symbol: Livermorium (Lv)

Atomic Number: 116

Atomic Weight: [293]

Discovery: Joint Institute for Nuclear Research and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (2000)

Electron Configuration: [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p or perhaps [Rn] 5f14 6d10 7s2 7p21/2 7p3/2, to reflect the 7p subshell split

Element Group: p-block, group 16 (chalcogens)

Element Period: period 7

Density: 12.9 g/cm3 (predicted)

Oxidation States: probably -2, +2, +4 with the +2 oxidation state predicted to be most stable

Ionization Energies: Ionization energies are predicted values:

1st: 723.6 kJ/mol
2nd: 1331.5 kJ/mol
3rd: 2846.3 kJ/mol

Atomic Radius: 183 pm

Covalent Radius: 162-166 pm (extrapolated)

Isotopes: 4 isotopes are known, with mass number 290-293. Livermorium-293 has the longest half-life, which is approximately 60 milliseconds. 

Melting Point: 637–780 K ​(364–507 °C, ​687–944 °F) predicted

Boiling Point:1035–1135 K ​(762–862 °C, ​1403–1583 °F) predicted

Uses of Livermorium: At present, the only uses of livermorium are for scientific research.

Livermorium Sources: Superheavy elements, such as element 116, are the result of nuclear fusion. If scientists succeed in forming even heavier elements, livermorium might be seen as a decay product.

Toxicity: Livermorium presents a health hazard because of its extreme radioactivity. The element serves no known biological function in any organism.


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  • Hoffman, Darleane C.; Lee, Diana M.; Pershina, Valeria (2006). "Transactinides and the future elements". In Morss; Edelstein, Norman M.; Fuger, Jean. The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements (3rd ed.). Dordrecht, The Netherlands: Springer Science+Business Media.
  • Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Utyonkov; Lobanov; Abdullin; Polyakov; Shirokovsky; Tsyganov; Gulbekian; Bogomolov; Gikal; Mezentsev; Iliev; Subbotin; Sukhov; Ivanov; Buklanov; Subotic; Itkis; Moody; Wild; Stoyer; Stoyer; Lougheed; Laue; Karelin; Tatarinov (2000). "Observation of the decay of 292116". Physical Review C63:
  • Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Utyonkov, V.; Lobanov, Yu.; Abdullin, F.; Polyakov, A.; Shirokovsky, I.; Tsyganov, Yu.; Gulbekian, G.; Bogomolov, S.; Gikal, B. N.; et al. (2004). "Measurements of cross sections and decay properties of the isotopes of elements 112, 114, and 116 produced in the fusion reactions 233,238U, 242Pu, and 248Cm+48Ca". Physical Review C70 (6).
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Your Citation
Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. "Livermorium Facts - Element 116 or Lv." ThoughtCo, Jul. 31, 2021, Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. (2021, July 31). Livermorium Facts - Element 116 or Lv. Retrieved from Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. "Livermorium Facts - Element 116 or Lv." ThoughtCo. (accessed March 30, 2023).