Science, Tech, Math › Science How to Make Game of Thrones Wildfire Green Wildfire Share Flipboard Email Print While there isn't a (safe) formula for real Game of Thrones wildfire, you can make green flames that look the part. Gav Gregory / EyeEm / Getty Images Science Chemistry Projects & Experiments Basics Chemical Laws Molecules Periodic Table Scientific Method Biochemistry Physical Chemistry Medical Chemistry Chemistry In Everyday Life Famous Chemists Activities for Kids Abbreviations & Acronyms Biology Physics Geology Astronomy Weather & Climate By Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D. Chemistry Expert Ph.D., Biomedical Sciences, University of Tennessee at Knoxville B.A., Physics and Mathematics, Hastings College Dr. Helmenstine holds a Ph.D. in biomedical sciences and is a science writer, educator, and consultant. She has taught science courses at the high school, college, and graduate levels. our editorial process Facebook Facebook Twitter Twitter Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D. Updated June 17, 2018 Wildfire is the fictional green green substance used in George R. R. Martin’s epic fantasy world to immolate foes when dragon fire isn't handy and swords just aren't enough. According to the HBO Game of Thrones series, the liquid burns in the presence of urine and "burns so hot it melts wood, stone... even steel... and, of course, flesh!" Oh, and it burns with an emerald green flame. In the television series and Martin's A Song of Ice and Fire novel, the secret of wildfire was pyromancer magic, but we all know the best magic is simply science that isn't well-understood, right? Martin's fictional goo resembles modern napalm (except for the green color) and "Greek fire", a real-life weapon used during the Byzantine era (also, probably not green). Make (a Safer) Wildfire This wildfire recipe won't be of much use if you want to melt stone, but it makes nice ambiance lighting when you're reading Martin's books or need to find your way back to the kitchen for a snack during Game of Thrones. You end up with a green liquid that burns bright, vivid green. It spreads out nicely, like pyromancer wildfire, but it doesn't burn as long or as a brightly. Wildfire Materials Borax Green Food ColoringMethanol (Methyl alcohol is available as Heet fuel treatment or as a lab chemical.)Hand Sanitizer Gel (The alcohol-based stuff is what you want. You only need this if you're making the gel.)Heat-safe container. You can get a similar result using high proof grain alcohol or rubbing alcohol and copper(II) sulfate (usually sold as an algicide) if borax is unavailable. It's not as good as the borax-methanol mixture, though, so don't substitute if you don't have to do so. Let's Make Wildfire Pour a bit of methanol into your container. You don't need a lot. Don't taste it (you'll get a headache or go blind if you drink enough) and don't splash around in it (it's absorbed through your skin). There are warnings on the label you'd do well to read. Oh, and it's flammable, but that's kind of the whole point.Stir in a drop of green food coloring. Pretty right?Break up any clumps in your borax and stir a spoonful into the liquid. You don't need an exact measurement. It only takes a small amount to get green flames. If you add too much, you'll have white sediment in the bottom of your container.Light your creation and admire the pretty green fire. If you do this indoors, be advised your smoke alarm likely will sound (mine did). Blow out the flames when you're sufficiently amused.Now, if you want to make a gel out of this, you can stir in hand sanitizer until you get the consistency you want. Hand sanitizer is a mixture of water and ethyl alcohol. Because there is ethanol in it, you can mix it in with the methanol without too much trouble. Adding the water also means you have a chance to add powdered copper(II) sulfate, which dissolves in water, but not so well in alcohol. You don't need to add copper sulfate... I'm just throwing it out there as an option.Ignite the gel. Still green, but not quite as bright, right?If you want to try again, all you need to do is add more methanol. It is important you only add more fuel after the flames have been extinguished. Use common sense. You can blow out the flames. You can also extinguish the fire with water, but then you won't be able to re-light it. Safety Considerations Yes, this is a real fire. Yes, it can burn you or ignite your hair or clothing if you spill it while it's lit, just like any other type of alcohol lamp. Responsible adult supervision is required. Responsible is the keyword. Don't play pyromancer. Wildfire, Greek Fire, and Burning on Water Although it wasn't green, "Greek fire" or "sea fire" was a real incendiary weapon used in naval battles from around 672 onward into the 12th century. Its formulation is unknown but may have included ingredients such as pine resin, calcium phosphide, naphtha, niter, quicklime, and sulfur. It was almost certainly a mixture based on bitumen, petroleum, or sulfur. While the mixture floated on water, it's unclear whether or not it could actually be ignited by water. An Italian recipe from the 16th century that supposedly burns underwater is made from willow coal, sulfur, wool, camphor, incense, alcohol and some sort of burning salt and pergola. You can try to decipher the Italian text, or just rely on modern chemistry to ignite a green flame with a drop of water.