Mary, Queen of Scots, in Pictures

01
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Mary Stuart, Dauphine of France

Mary Stuart, Dauphine of France
Image of a Young Mary, Queen of Scots Mary Stuart, Dauphine of France. Adapted from an image in the public domain. Modifications © 2004 Jone Johnson Lewis.

Images of Mary Stuart

She was briefly Queen of France, and became Queen of Scotland from her infancy. Mary, Queen of Scots, was considered a rival for the throne of Queen Elizabeth I - a special threat since Mary was a Catholic and Elizabeth a Protestant. Mary's choices in marriage were questionable and tragic and she was accused of plotting to overthrow Elizabeth. Mary Stuart's son, James VI of Scotland, was the first Stuart king of England, named by Elizabeth as her successor.

The young Mary was sent to France when she was six to be raised with her future husband, Francis.

Mary was queen consort from July 1559, when Francis became king at the death of his father, Henry II, until December 1560, when the always-sickly Francis died.

02
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Mary, Queen of Scots as Widow of Francis II

Mary, Queen of Scots, Dowager Queen of France
Dowager Queen of France Mary, Queen of Scots, Dowager Queen of France. Getty Images / Hulton Archive

Mary, Queen of Scots, raised in France from the age of five, suddenly found herself, just before she was 18, a widow of the king of France.

03
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Mary, Queen of Scots, with Francis II

Francis II, King of France, with his consort, Mary, Queen of Scots, during their brief reign
Mary as Queen of France Francis II, King of France, with his consort, Mary, Queen of Scots, during their brief reign. From a public domain image

Mary, Queen of France, with Francis II, during their brief reign, in a portrait from the Book of Hours of Catherine of Medici, mother of Francis.

04
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Mary, Queen of Scots

Mary, Queen of Scots
Image of Mary Stuart Mary, Queen of Scots. © 1999-2008 ClipArt.com, modifications © 2008 by Jone Johnson Lewis

Engraving after a painting of Mary, Queen of Scots.

05
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Mary Stuart and Lord Darnley

Mary, Queen of Scots, with her second husband, Lord Darnley
Mary, Queen of Scots, with Her Second Husband Mary, Queen of Scots, with her second husband, Lord Darnley. From a public domain image

Mary impetuously married her cousin, Lord Darnley, against the wishes of Scottish nobles. Her affection for him soon failed. He was murdered in 1567.

Whether Mary was involved in the murder of Darnley has been a controversy ever since the murder happened. Bothwell -- Mary's next husband -- has often been blamed, and sometimes Mary herself.

06
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Mary Stuart and Lord Darnley

Mary, Queen of Scots, with Lord Darnley
Mary, Queen of Scots, with Her Cousin and Husband Henry Stewart Mary, Queen of Scots, and her second husband, Henry Stewart, Lord Darnley. Getty Images / Hulton Archive

Mary married her cousin, Lord Darnley, against the wishes of Scottish nobles.

Queen Elizabeth could see their marriage as a threat, as both were descended from Henry VIII's sister Margaret and thus could assert a claim to Elizabeth's crown.

07
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Apartment of Mary, Queen of Scots, at Holyrood Palace

Apartment of Mary, Queen of Scots, at Holyrood Palace
Edinburgh, Scotland Apartment of Mary, Queen of Scots, at Holyrood Palace, in a painting by John Fulleylove (1847–1908). From "Edinburgh," Rosaline Orme Masson, 1912.

Mary's Italian secretary, David Rizzio, was dragged from Mary's apartment, illustrated here, by a group of nobles including her husband, Darnley.

Darnley probably intended to imprison Mary and rule in her place, but she convinced him to escape with her. The other conspirators produced a paper with Darnley's signature that confirmed that Darnley had been in on the planning. The son of Mary and Darnley, James, was born three months after the murder of Rizzio.

08
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Mary, Queen of Scots, and James VI/I

Mary, Queen of Scots, with her son James, future King of Scotland and King of England
Mary Stuart and James Stuart Mary, Queen of Scots, with her son James, future King of Scotland and King of England, from an engraving by Francesco Bartolozzi after a painting by Federigo Zuccaro. Adapted from an image from "The Best Portraits in Engraving," 1875

Mary's son by her second husband, Lord Darnley, succeeded her as James VI of Scotland, and succeeded Queen Elizabeth I as James I, beginning Stuart rule.

Though Mary is depicted here with her son James, she did not actually see her son after he was taken from her by Scottish nobles in 1567, when he was less than a year old. He was under the care of her half-brother and enemy, the earl of Moray, and he received little emotional connection or love as a child. When he became king, he had her body moved to Westminster Abbey.

09
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Mary, Queen of Scots, and Elizabeth, Queen of England

Mary, Queen of Scots, and Queen Elizabeth I
A depiction of a fictional meeting Mary, Queen of Scots, and Queen Elizabeth I. Adapted from an image in Great Men and Famous Women, 1894. Modifications © 2004 Jone Johnson Lewis.

This illustration depicts a meeting that never happened, between cousins Mary, Queen of Scots, and Elizabeth I.

10
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Mary, Queen of Scots

Mary, Queen of Scots
Mary, Queen of Scots. From "The New Student's Reference Work," 1914.
11
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Arrest of Mary, Queen of Scots

Mary, Queen of Scots, Arrested
Mary, Queen of Scots, Arrested. © 1999-2008 ClipArt.com

Mary Stuart was held under house arrest for 19 years on orders of Queen Elizabeth, who saw her as a dangerous rival for the throne.

12
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Mary, Queen of Scots, Executed

Mary, Queen of Scots, beheaded at Fotheringay Castle
Fotheringay Castle, February 8, 1587 Mary, Queen of Scots, beheaded at Fotheringay Castle, February 8, 1587. © 1999-2008 Clipart.com

Letters linking Mary, Queen of Scots, to a proposed uprising by Catholics, prompted Queen Elizabeth to order the execution of her cousin.

13
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Mary, Queen of Scots

Mary, Queen of Scots, in an 1885 engraving
Depicted in an 1885 Engraving Mary, Queen of Scots, depicted in an 1885 engraving. © 1999-2008 Clipart.com, from an image from "Queenly Women," 1885

Long after her death, artists have continued to depict Mary, Queen of Scots.

14
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Mary, Queen of Scots

Mary Queen of Scots
from 1875 costume book Mary, Queen of Scots. Original from Illustrations of English and Foreign Costume from the Fifteenth Century to the Present Day, 1875. Image © Dover Publications. Used with permission.

Drawn from paintings of Mary, Queen of Scots, this image is from an 1875 book on costume.

15
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Mary, Queen of Scots

Mary Queen of Scots - about 1565
Mary at Sea Mary Queen of Scots - about 1565. Stock Montage / Getty Images

In this artist's image of Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots, she is shown at sea, holding a book. This image depicts her before her abdication in favor of her son, in 1567.

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Lewis, Jone Johnson. "Mary, Queen of Scots, in Pictures." ThoughtCo, Jan. 13, 2017, thoughtco.com/mary-queen-of-scots-in-pictures-4122973. Lewis, Jone Johnson. (2017, January 13). Mary, Queen of Scots, in Pictures. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/mary-queen-of-scots-in-pictures-4122973 Lewis, Jone Johnson. "Mary, Queen of Scots, in Pictures." ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/mary-queen-of-scots-in-pictures-4122973 (accessed November 22, 2017).