Mesopotamian Gods and Goddesses

Assyrian Gods and Goddesses and Babylonian Gods and Goddesses

Assyrian Lamassu at the Oriental Institute Museum
This is the Assyrian Lamassu at the Oriental Institute Museum at the University of Chicago. Gypsum (?) Khorsabad, entrance to the throne room Neo-Assyrian Period, ca. 721-705 B.C. (OIM A7369) This 40 ton statue was one of a two flanking the entrance to the throne room of King Sargon II. A protective spirit known as a lamassu, it is shown as a composite being with the head of a human, the body and ears of a bull, and the wings of a bird. When viewed from the side, the creature appears to be walking; when viewed from the front, to be standing still. Thus it is actually represented with five, rather than four legs. Being approximately 2700 years old, copyright does not apply to this statue. See page for author [GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons

Older Gods

  • Apsu - underworld ocean; begetter of the skies and earth
  • Tiamat - primeval chaos; bearer of the skies and earth
  • Lahmu & Lahamu
  • Anshar
  • Kishar
  • Anu - sky god, father & king of the gods
  • Antu(m) - 1st consort of Anu
  • Aruru (Ninmah, Mami) - mother goddess; midwife of the gods
  • Mammetum - maker or mother of fate
  • Nammu - associated with water.

Anunnaki Gods

Younger Gods

  • Ellil (Enlil) - initially, leader of the pantheon
  • Ea (Enki, Nudimmud)** - god of the waters
  • Mummu - craftsman
  • Qingu - battle leader
  • Sin (Nannar) - moon god
  • Ningal - the consort of Sin -
  • Ishtar (Ishhara, Irnini, Inanna) - goddess of love, procreation, and war
  • Siduri - barmaid
  • Shamash (Babbar, Utu) - sun god
  • Aia - Shamash's consort
  • Kakka - Anshar - and Anu's vizier
  • Ninlil - Elil's consort
  • Nusku - god of fire and Ellil's vizier
  • Gerra (Gibil) - god of fire
  • Ishum - god of fire
  • Kalkal - Ellil's doorkeeper
  • Nash - a pure goddess
  • Zaltu - strife
  • Ninurta - chamberlain of the war god
  • Ninsun - great queen
  • Marduk - supplants other Babylonian deities to become central figure
  • Bel (Canaanite Baal - cleverest; sage of the gods
  • Ashur - god of Assyria and war, symbolized by a dragon and winged disk
  • Shullat - Shamash's servant
  • Papsukkal - vizier of the great gods
  • Hanish - weather god's servant
  • Adad - a storm god associated with lightning
  • Shara
  • Nin-ildu - carpenter
  • Gushkin-banda - creator of god and man, goldsmith god
  • Nin-agal - patron of smiths.

Chthonic Deities

  • Ereshkigal (Allatu) - supreme goddess of underworld
  • Belit-tseri - tablet-scribe of the underworld
  • Namtar(a) - the fate-cutter, herald of death
  • Sumuqan - cattle god
  • Nergal (Erragal, Erra, Engidudu) - underworld; hunter; god of war and plague
  • Irra - plague god
  • Enmesharra - underworld god
  • Lamashtu - dread female demon also known as 'she who erases'
  • Nabu god of writing and wisdom whose symbol is a stylus
  • Ningizzia - guardian of the gate of heaven; a god of the underworld
  • Tammuz (Dumuzi, Adonis)**** - vegetation
  • Belili (Geshtinanna) -
  • Gizzida (Gishzida) - consort of Belili, doorkeeper of Anu
  • Nissaba (Nisaba) - cereal grain harvest
  • Dagan - fertility and the underworld
  • Birdu - an underworld god
  • Sharru - god of submission
  • Urshambi - boatman to Utnapishtim
  • Ennugi - controller of the Anunnaki
  • Geshtu-egod whose blood and intelligence are used by Mami to create man.

Sources:
John Heise's `Akkadian language'
The Verbalist

Notes on the God Categories

Annuna (Anunnaki) - An's children. Christopher Siren says An may have been the main god of the Mesopotamian pantheon before 2500 B.C. The Annuna lived on Dulkug or Du-ku, the "holy mound".

Chthonic Deities - From a Greek word meaning "of the earth". "Chthonic" is used to refer to earth gods as opposed to sky gods. It also covers gods of the Underworld. Chthonic gods are often fertility deities. Chthonic gods are often associated with mystery cults.