Mineral Photo Gallery and Chemical Composition

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Mineral Photographs and Their Chemical Composition

Copper sulfate is a mineral you can use to grow amazing blue crystals.
Copper sulfate is a mineral you can use to grow amazing blue crystals. J A Steadman / Getty Images

Welcome to the mineral photo gallery. Minerals are natural inorganic chemical compounds. These are photographs of minerals, along with a look at their chemical composition.

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Trinitite - Mineral Specimens

This is a sample of trinitite or Alamogordo glass.
This is a sample of trinitite, mounted in a specimen case. Trinitite, also known as atomsite or Alamogordo glass, is a type of glass formed by the world's first nuclear explosion, the Trinity Test. Anne Helmenstine

Trinitite consists mainly of quartz with feldspar. Most trinitite is light to olive green, although it is found in other colors, too.

The corresponding Russian material is called Kharitonchiki (singular: kharitonchik), which formed at ground zero from the Soviet atmospheric nuclear tests at the Semipalatinsk Test Site in Kazakhstan.

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Agate - Mineral Specimens

Agate is chalcedony that displays concentric banding.
Agate is chalcedony (a cryptocrystalline quartz) that displays concentric banding. Red-banded agate is also called sard or sardonyx. Adrian Pingstone
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Amethyst - Mineral Specimens

Amethyst
Amethyst is purple quartz, a silicate. Jon Zander
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Alexandrite - Mineral Specimens

Alexndrites display color changes when viewed under different types of light.
This 26.75-carat cushion-cut alexandrite is bluish green in daylight and purplish red in incandescent light. David Weinberg
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Ametrine - Mineral Specimens

Ametrine is also called trystine or bolivianite.
Ametrine is also called trystine or bolivianite. Both citrine (golden quartz) and amethyst (purple quartz) exist in the same stone. Temperature is one of the factors which can effect the color change. Wela49, Wikipedia Commons
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Apatite Crystals - Mineral Specimens

Apatite is the name given to a group of phosphate minerals.
Apatite is the name given to a group of phosphate minerals. OG59, Wikipedia Commons
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Aquamarine - Mineral Specimens

Aquamarine is a translucent pale blue or turquoise variety of beryl.
Aquamarine is a translucent pale blue or turquoise variety of beryl. Wela49, Wikipedia Commons
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Arsenic - Mineral Specimens

Pure arsenic is found in many forms, or allotropes, including yellow, black, and gray.
Natural arsenic with quartz and calcite, from Ste. Marie-aux-mines, Alsace, France. Specimen is at the Natural History Museum, London. Pure arsenic is found in many forms, or allotropes, including yellow, black, and gray. Aram Dulyan
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Aventurine - Mineral Specimens

Aventurine is a form of quartz which contains mineral inclusions that give a glistening effect.
Aventurine is a form of quartz which contains mineral inclusions that give a glistening effect known as aventurescence. Simon Eugster, Creative Commons
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Azurite - Mineral Specimens

"Velvet Beauty" azurite from Bisbee, Arizona, US. Cobalt123, Flickr

Azurite is a deep blue copper mineral. Exposure to light, heat and air all can fade its color.

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Azurite - Mineral Specimens

Crystals of azurite.
Crystals of azurite. Géry Parent

Azurite is a soft blue copper mineral.

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Benitoite - Mineral Specimens

These are blue crystals of the rare mineral benitoite.
These are blue crystals of the rare barium titanium silicate mineral called benitoite. Géry Parent
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Rough Beryl Crystals - Mineral Specimens

Beryls (emeralds) from the Emerald Hollow Mine in Hiddenite, NC.
Beryls (emeralds) from the Emerald Hollow Mine in Hiddenite, NC. Anne Helmenstine
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Beryl or Emerald Crystals - Mineral Specimens

Emerald crystals from the Emerald Hollow Mine in Hiddenite, NC.
Emerald crystals from the Emerald Hollow Mine in Hiddenite, NC. Anne Helmenstine

Emerald is the green gemstone form of the mineral beryl. Beryl is a beryllium aluminum cyclosilicate.

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Borax - Mineral Specimens

Borax is sodium tetraborate or disodium tetraborate.
This is a photo of borax crystals from California. Borax is sodium tetraborate or disodium tetraborate. Borax has white monoclinic crystals. Aramgutang, wikipedia.org
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Carnelian - Mineral Specimens

Carnelian is a reddish type of chalcedony, which is cryptocrystalline silica.
Carnelian is a reddish type of chalcedony, which is cryptocrystalline silica. Wela49, Wikipedia Commons
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Chrysoberyl - Mineral Specimens

Faceted yellow chrysoberyl gemstone.
The mineral or gemstone chrysoberyl is a beryllium aluminate. This is a faceted yellow chrysoberyl gemstone. David Weinberg
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Chrysocolla - Mineral Specimens

This is a polished nugget of the mineral chrysocolla. Chrysocolla is a hydrated copper silicate.
This is a polished nugget of the mineral chrysocolla. Chrysocolla is a hydrated copper silicate. Grzegorz Framski
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Citrine - Mineral Specimens

Citrine
58-carat faceted citrine. Wela49, Wikipedia Commons
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Copper Form - Mineral Specimens

Piece of native copper measuring ~1½ inches (4 cm) in diameter.
Piece of native copper measuring ~1½ inches (4 cm) in diameter. Jon Zander
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Copper - Native - Mineral Specimens

Crystals of copper metal, with a penny to show scale.
Crystals of copper metal on a sample, with a penny to show scale. U.S. Geological Survey
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Native Copper - Mineral Specimens

This is a specimen of native copper from the Willems Miner Collection.
This is a specimen of native copper from the Willems Miner Collection. Noodle snacks, Wikipedia Commons
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Cymophane or Catseye - Mineral Specimens

Cymophane or catseye chrysoberyl exhibits chatoyancy due to needle-like inclusions of rutile.
Cymophane or catseye chrysoberyl exhibits chatoyancy due to needle-like inclusions of rutile. David Weinberg
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Diamond Crystal - Mineral Specimens

Rough Octohedral Diamond Crystal
Rough Octohedral Diamond Crystal. USGS

Diamond is a crystal form of carbon.

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Diamond Picture - Mineral Specimens

This is an AGS ideal cut diamond from Russia (Sergio Fleuri).
This is an AGS ideal cut diamond from Russia (Sergio Fleuri). Salexmccoy, Wikipedia Commons

Diamond is a carbon mineral which is highly valued as a gemstone.

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Emerald Crystals - Mineral Specimens

Colombian emerald crystals.
Colombian emerald crystals. Productos Digitales Moviles

Emerald is the green gemstone form of the mineral beryl.

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Colombian Emerald - Mineral Specimens

The 858-carat Galacha Emerald hails from the La Vega de San Juan mine in Gachalá, Colombia.
The 858-carat Galacha Emerald hails from the La Vega de San Juan mine in Gachalá, Colombia. Thomas Ruedas

Many gemstone-quality emeralds come from Colombia.

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Emerald Crystal - Mineral Specimens

Uncut emerald crystal, a green gemstone beryl.
Uncut emerald crystal, a green gemstone beryl. Ryan Salsbury

Emerald is the green gemstone variety of beryl, a beryllium aluminum cyclosilicate.

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Fluorite Crystals - Mineral Specimens

Fluorite or fluorspar is an isometric mineral composed of calcium fluoride.
Fluorite or fluorspar is an isometric mineral composed of calcium fluoride. Photolitherland, Wikipedia Commons
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Fluorite or Fluorspar Crystals - Mineral Specimens

These are fluorite crystals on display at the National History Museum in Milan, Italy.
These are fluorite crystals on display at the National History Museum in Milan, Italy. Fluorite is the crystal form of the mineral calcium fluoride. Giovanni Dall'Orto

The molecular formula for fluorite and fluorspar as CaF2.

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Garnet - Faceted Garnet - Mineral Specimens

This is a faceted garnet.
This is a faceted garnet. Wela49, Wikipedia Commons
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Garnets in Quartz - Mineral Specimens

Sample from China of garnet crystals with quartz.
Sample from China of garnet crystals with quartz. Géry Parent
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Garnet - Mineral Specimens

Garnet from the Emerald Hollow Mine in Hiddenite, North Carolina.
Garnet from the Emerald Hollow Mine in Hiddenite, North Carolina. Anne Helmenstine

There are six species of garnet, which are categorized according to their chemical composition. The general formula for garnet is X3Y2(SiO4)3. Although garnets are commonly seen as red or purplish-red stones, they can occur in any color.

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Gold Nugget - Mineral Specimens

Nugget of native gold from the Washington mining district, California.
Nugget of native gold from the Washington mining district, California. Aramgutan, Wikipedia Commons
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Halite or Salt Crystals - Mineral Specimens

Crystals of sodium chloride, also called halite or table salt.
Crystals of halite, which is sodium chloride or table salt. from "Minerals in Your World" (USGS and Mineral Information Institute)
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Rock Salt Crystals - Mineral Specimens

Rock Salt Crystals
Photograph of crystals of rock salt, natural sodium chloride. U.S. Geological Survey
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Halite - Mineral Specimens

Photograph of halite, or salt crystals.
Photograph of halite, or salt crystals. U.S. Geological Survey
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Heliodor Crystal - Mineral Specimens

Heliodor is also known as golden beryl.
Heliodor is also known as golden beryl. Parent Géry
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Heliotrope or Bloodstone - Mineral Specimens

Heliotrope, also known as bloodstone, is one of the gemstone forms of the mineral chalcedony.
Heliotrope, also known as bloodstone, is one of the gemstone forms of the mineral chalcedony. Ra'ike, Wikipedia Commons
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Hematite - Mineral Specimens

Rough specimen of hematite.
Hematite crystallizes in the rhombohedral crystal system. USGS
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Hiddenite - Mineral Specimens

Hiddenite from Hiddenite, NC.
Hiddenite is a green form of spodumene (LiAl(SiO3)2. The gemstone was discovered in North Carolina. Anne Helmenstine
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Iolite - Mineral Specimens

Iolite is the name for gemstone-quality cordierite.
Iolite is the name for gemstone-quality cordierite. Iolite typically is violet blue, but may be seen as a yellowish brown stone. Vzb83, Wikipedia Commons
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Jasper - Mineral Specimens

Polished orbicular jasper from Madagascar.
Polished orbicular jasper from Madagascar. Vassil, Wikipedia Commons
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Jasper - Mineral Specimens

Jasper from the Emerald Hollow Mine in Hiddenite, NC.
Jasper from the Emerald Hollow Mine in Hiddenite, NC. Anne Helmenstine

Jasper is an opaque, impure mineral composed of silica. It can be found in nearly any color or combination of colors.

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Kyanite - Mineral Specimens

Crystals of kyanite.
Crystals of kyanite. Aelwyn (Creative Commons)

Kyanite is a sky-blue metamorphic mineral.

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Labradorite or Spectrolite - Mineral Specimens

Blue rock from Hiddenite, NC.
This is an example of the feldspar known as labradorite or spectrolite. Anne Helmenstine
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Mica - Mineral Specimens

Mica from the Emerald Hollow Mine in Hiddenite, NC.
Mica from the Emerald Hollow Mine in Hiddenite, NC. Anne Helmenstine
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Malachite - Mineral Specimens

Nugget of polished malachite.
Nugget of polished malachite. Calibas, Wikipedia Commons
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Monazite - Mineral Specimens

Monazite from the Emerald Hollow Mine, Hiddenite, NC.
Monazite from the Emerald Hollow Mine, Hiddenite, NC. Anne Helmenstine
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Morganite Crystal - Mineral Specimens

Rough morganite crystal.
Example of uncut morganite crystal, a pink gemstone version of beryl. This specimen came from a mine outside of San Diego, CA. Trinity Minerals

Morganite is the pink gemstone variety of beryl.

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Olivine in Lava - Mineral Specimens

The green sand of the green sand beach comes from the olivine.
The green sand of the green sand beach comes from the olivine, which is one of the first crystals to form as lava cools. Anne Helmenstine
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Green Sand - Mineral Specimens

Handful of green sand from the Green Sand Beach at the southern tip of the island of Hawaii.
Handful of green sand from the Green Sand Beach at the southern tip of the island of Hawaii. This sand is green because it is made from olivine from a volcano. Anne Helmenstine
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Olivine or Peridot - Mineral Specimens

Gemstone-quality olivine (chrysolite) is called peridot.
Gemstone-quality olivine (chrysolite) is called peridot. Olivine is one of the most common minerals. It is a magnesium iron silicate. S Kitahashi, wikipedia.org
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Opal - Banded - Mineral Specimens

Banded blue opal from Australia.
Massive opal from Barco River, Queensland, Australia. Photo of specimen at the Natural History Museum, London. Aramgutang, Wikipedia Commons
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Opal Specimen - Mineral Specimens

Rough opal from Nevada.
Rough opal from Nevada. Chris Ralph
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Opal - Rough - Mineral Specimens

Veins of opal in a iron-rich rock from Australia.
Veins of opal in a iron-rich rock from Australia. Photo taken from specimen at the Natural History Museum, London. Aramgutang, Wikipedia Commons
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Platinum Group Metal Ore - Mineral Specimens

Photograph of platinum metal ore.
Photograph of platinum metal ore, which contains many of the metals from the platinum group. A penny is included to indicate size of the sample. U.S. Geological Survey
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Pyrite - Mineral Specimens

The mineral pyrite is an iron sulfide.
The mineral pyrite is an iron sulfide. Anescient, Wikipedia Commons
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Pyrite or Fool's Gold Crystals - Mineral Specimens

Crystals of pyrite (fool's gold) from Huanzala, Peru.
Pyrite is sometimes called Fool's Gold. Crystals of pyrite (fool's gold) from Huanzala, Peru. Fir0002, Wikipedia Commons
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Quartz - Mineral Specimens

Crystals of quartz, the most abundant mineral in the earth's crust.
Crystals of quartz, the most abundant mineral in the earth's crust. Ken Hammond, USDA
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Ruby - Mineral Specimens

Ruby crystal before faceting.
Ruby crystal before faceting. Ruby is the name given to the red variety of the mineral corundum (aluminum oxide). Adrian Pingstone, wikipedia.org
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Ruby - Mineral Specimens

Ruby from the Emerald Hollow Mine in Hiddenite, NC.
Ruby from the Emerald Hollow Mine in Hiddenite, NC. Anne Helmenstine

Ruby is the red gemstone form of the mineral corundum.

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Ruby - Mineral Specimens

Ruby from Hiddenite, NC.
My son found this pretty ruby in the creek at the Emerald Hollow Mine. Anne Helmenstine

Ruby is the red variety of the mineral corundum.

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Cut Ruby - Mineral Specimens

1.41-carat faceted oval ruby.
1.41-carat faceted oval ruby. Brian Kell
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Rutile Needles - Mineral Specimens

Rutile Needles
The tuft of brown needles protruding from this quartz crystal are rutile. Rutile is the most common form of natural titanium dioxide. Natural corundum (rubies and sapphires) contain rutile inclusions. Aramgutang
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Quartz with Rutile - Mineral Specimens

Quartz containing rutile inclusions, from the Emerald Hollow Mine, NC.
This quartz crystal contains needles of the mineral rutile, which is titanium dioxide. The filaments look like strands of gold - very pretty. Anne Helmenstine
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Sapphire - Mineral Specimens

Sapphire from Emerald Hollow Mine, Hiddenite, North Carolina.
Sapphire from Emerald Hollow Mine, Hiddenite, North Carolina. Anne Helmenstine

Sapphires are corundum in every color except red, which is called ruby.

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Star Sapphire - Star of India - Mineral Specimens

The Star of India is star sapphire.
The Star of India is a 563.35 carat (112.67 g) grayish blue star sapphire that was mined in Sri Lanka. Daniel Torres, Jr.

Sapphire is a gemstone form of the mineral corundum.

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Sapphire - Mineral Specimens

Sapphire
422.99-carat Logan sapphire, National Museum of Natural History, Washington D.C. Thomas Ruedas

Sapphire is a gemstone form of cordundum.

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Silver Crystals - Mineral Specimens

Silver Crystals
Photograph of crystals of silver metal, with a penny included to indicate the size of the sample. U.S. Geological Survey
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Smoky Quartz Crystals - Mineral Specimens

Crystals of smoky quartz.
Crystals of smoky quartz. Ken Hammond, USDA

Smoky quartz is a silicate.

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Sodalite - Mineral Specimens

Sodalite is a beautiful blue stone.
The sodalite mineral group includes blue specimens such as lazurite and sodalite. This specimen comes from the creek running through the Emerald Hollow Mine in Hiddenite, NC. Anne Helmenstine
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Spinel - Mineral Specimens

Spinels are a class of minerals that crystallize in the cubic system.
Spinels are a class of minerals that crystallize in the cubic system. They can be found in a variety of colors. S. Kitahashi
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Sugilite or Luvulite - Mineral Specimens

Sugilite or luvulite is an uncommon pink to purple cyclosilicate mineral.
Sugilite or luvulite is an uncommon pink to purple cyclosilicate mineral. Simon Eugster
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Sugilite - Mineral Specimens

Sugilite tile. Sugilite is also known as luvulite.
Mineral Photo Gallery Sugilite tile. Sugilite is also known as luvulite. Agapetile, wikipedia.org
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Sulfur Crystals - Mineral Specimens

Sulfur Crystals
These are crystals of sulfur, one of the nonmetallic elements. U.S. Geological Survey
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Sulfur - Mineral Specimens

Crystals of the nonmetallic element sulfur.
Crystals of the nonmetallic element sulfur. Smithsonian Institution
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Sunstone - Oligoclase Sunstone - Mineral Specimens

Sunstone contains inclusions of red hematite that give it a sun-spangled appearance.
Mineral Photo Gallery Sunstone is a plagioclase feldspar that is a sodium calcium aluminum silicate. Sunstone contains inclusions of red hematite that give it a sun-spangled appearance, leading to its popularity as a gemstone. Ra'ike, Creative Commons
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Tanzanite - Mineral Specimens

Tanzanite is blue-purple gemstone-quality zoisite.
Tanzanite is blue-purple gemstone-quality zoisite. Wela49, Wikipedia Commons
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Topaz - Mineral Specimens

Topaz is a mineral (Al2SiO4(F,OH)2) that forms orthorhombic crystals.
Topaz is a mineral (Al2SiO4(F,OH)2) that forms orthorhombic crystals. Pure topaz is clear, but impurities can tint it a variety of colors. United States Geological Survey

Topaz is an aluminum silicate mineral.

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Topaz Crystal - Mineral Specimens

Crystal of colorless topaz from Pedra Azul, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Crystal of colorless topaz from Pedra Azul, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Tom Epaminondas

Topaz is an aluminum silicate mineral that occurs in a wide variety of colors, though the pure crystal is colorless.

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Red Topaz - Mineral Specimens

Crystal of red topaz at the British Natural History Museum.
Crystal of red topaz at the British Natural History Museum. Aramgutang, Wikipedia Commons

Topaz which contains minute quantities of impurities is colored.

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Tourmaline - Mineral Specimens

Tourmaline Crystals with Quartz
Tri-color elbaite tourmaline crystals with quartz from the Himalaya Mine, California, USA. Chris Ralph
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Green Tourmaline - Mineral Specimens

Tourmaline is a crystalline silicate mineral.
Tourmaline is a crystalline silicate mineral. It occurs in a variety of colors owing to the presence of several possible metal ions. This is an emerald-cut tourmaline gemstone. Wela49, Wikipedia Commons
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Turquoise - Mineral Specimens

Turquoise pebble that has been smoothed by tumbling.
Turquoise pebble that has been smoothed by tumbling. Adrian Pingstone

Turquoise is an opaque blue-to-green mineral consisting of a hydrous phosphate of copper and aluminum.

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Spessartine Garnet - Mineral Specimens

This is a specimen of spessartine garnet crystals from Fujian Province, China.
Spessartine or spessartite is manganese aluminum garnet. This is a specimen of spessartine garnet crystals from Fujian Province, China. Noodle snacks, Willems Miner Collection
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Almandine Garnet - Mineral Specimens

Almandine garnet, which is also known as carbuncle, is an iron-aluminum garnet.
Almandine garnet, which is also known as carbuncle, is an iron-aluminum garnet. This type of garnet is commonly found in a deep red color. This is an almandine garnet crystal in gneissic matrix. Eurico Zimbres and Tom Epaminondas
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Tin Ore - Mineral Specimens

Tin Ore
Photograph of tin ore in a vial, with a penny included to show the size of the sample. U.S. Geological Survey
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Rare Earth Ore - Mineral Specimens

Photograph of a rare earth ore, which contains several rare earth elements.
Photograph of a rare earth ore, which contains several rare earth elements. A penny is included to indicate the size of the sample. U.S. Geological Survey
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Manganese Ore - Mineral Specimens

Photograph of manganese ore, with a penny to indicate the scale of the the sample size.
Photograph of manganese ore, with a penny to indicate the scale of the the sample size. U.S. Geological Survey
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Mercury Ore - Mineral Specimens

Photograph of mercury ore, with a penny included to show sample size.
Photograph of mercury ore, with a penny included to show sample size. U.S. Geological Survey
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Trinitite or Alamogordo Glass - Mineral Specimens

Trinitite, also known as atomsite or Alamogordo glass, is the glass produced by the Trinity test.
Trinitite, also known as atomsite or Alamogordo glass, is the glass produced when the Trinity nuclear bomb test melting the ground of the desert near Alamogordo, New Mexico on July 16, 1945. Most of the mildly radioactive glass is light green. Shaddack, Creative Commons License

Trinitite is a mineraloid, since it is glassy rather than crystalline.

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Chalcanthite Crystals - Mineral Specimens

These are crystals of copper sulfate which forms a mineral known as chalcanthite.
These are crystals of copper sulfate which forms a mineral known as chalcanthite. Ra'ike
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Moldavite - Mineral Specimens

Moldavite is a green natural glass that may be formed as the result of a meteorite impact.
Moldavite is a green natural glass that may be formed as the result of a meteorite impact. H. Raab, Creative Commons License

Moldavite is a silicate glass or a glass based on silicon dioxide, SiO2. The green color most likely results from the presence of iron compounds.

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Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. "Mineral Photo Gallery and Chemical Composition." ThoughtCo, Feb. 28, 2017, thoughtco.com/mineral-photo-gallery-and-chemical-composition-4054188. Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. (2017, February 28). Mineral Photo Gallery and Chemical Composition. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/mineral-photo-gallery-and-chemical-composition-4054188 Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. "Mineral Photo Gallery and Chemical Composition." ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/mineral-photo-gallery-and-chemical-composition-4054188 (accessed November 18, 2017).