Science, Tech, Math › Science History and Applications of Monel Alloys Share Flipboard Email Print Shanghai Beall Metal Science Chemistry Chemistry In Everyday Life Basics Chemical Laws Molecules Periodic Table Projects & Experiments Scientific Method Biochemistry Physical Chemistry Medical Chemistry Famous Chemists Activities for Kids Abbreviations & Acronyms Biology Physics Geology Astronomy Weather & Climate By Terence Bell University of British Columbia Carleton University Terence Bell wrote about commodities investing for The Balance, and has over 10 years experience in the rare earth and minor metal industries. our editorial process Twitter Twitter LinkedIn LinkedIn Terence Bell Updated January 12, 2020 Monel® alloys are nickel-based alloys that contain between 29 and 33 percent copper. Initially created by metallurgist Robert Crooks Stanley and patented in 1905 by the International Nickel Company. The metal was given the name Monel in honor of the then-director of International Nickel. Not surprisingly, Stanley later became Director of International Nickel. By 1908, Monel was being used as a roofing material for Pennsylvania Station in New York. During the 1920s and later, Monel was used for countertops, sinks, appliances, and roof flashing. While Monel was among the most popular metals on the market through the 1940s, it was largely replaced by the more versatile stainless steels from the 1950's onward. Types of Monel There are six types of Monel. All contain a large percentage of nickel (up to 67%), while some iron, manganese, carbon, and/or silicon. Small additions of aluminum and titanium, which form the K-500 alloy, increase strength, particularly at high temperatures, making it useful in aerospace applications. Designation Cu % Al % Ti % Fe % Mn % Si % Ni % Monel 400 28-34 - - 2.5 max. 2.0 max. - 63 min. Monel 405 28-34 - - 2.5 max. 2.0 max. 0.5 max. 63 min. Monel K-500 27-33 2.3-3.15 0.35-0.85 2.0 max. 1.5 max. - 63 min. Source: SubsTech. Substances & Technology Uses for Monel Monel® alloys are most often found in chemical plant equipment due to their strong resistance to chemical corrosion. They are also used in the aerospace industry. Products built with Monel (particularly before the advent of stainless steel) include heat exchangers, screw machine products, wind instruments, piping systems, fuel and water tanks, kitchen sinks, and roofing. Pros of Monel Monel® alloys have a great deal to offer. Prior to the 1950s, they were the "go to" choice for many critically important industries. It could also be easily welded, soldered, and brazed. This is because of its: high corrosion resistance to acids and alkalis high mechanical strength good ductility (easy to shape and form) resistance to alkalis relatively low cost availability in different forms including hot and cold-rolled sheets, plates, rods, bars, and tubes attractive appearance and finishes, including a gray-green patina similar to copper Cons of Monel While Monel has a number of advantages, it is far from the perfect metal. The machinability of these alloys is poor because of their tendency to quickly work-harden. What's more: While surface discoloration in the form of a patina may be attractive in some circumstances, it can create problems in others. While it is resistant to corrosion, it can become pitted if exposed to salt water. While it is corrosion resistant under many circumstances, it can corrode when exposed to certain substances. For example, nitric oxide, nitrous acid, sulfur dioxide, and hypochlorites are all substances that can corrode Monel. The presence of Monel can lead to galvanic corrosion. In other words, if aluminum, zinc, or iron are used as fasteners for Monel and then exposed to certain conditions, the metal fasteners will quickly corrode. Cite this Article Format mla apa chicago Your Citation Bell, Terence. "History and Applications of Monel Alloys." ThoughtCo, Oct. 29, 2020, thoughtco.com/monel-alloys-composition-properties-and-uses-2340255. Bell, Terence. (2020, October 29). History and Applications of Monel Alloys. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/monel-alloys-composition-properties-and-uses-2340255 Bell, Terence. "History and Applications of Monel Alloys." ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/monel-alloys-composition-properties-and-uses-2340255 (accessed August 2, 2021). copy citation The Properties and Composition of Monel 400 Top Steel Alloying Agents The 200 Series of Stainless Steels Metal Profile: Chromium What is Cupronickel? The Characteristics of Austenitic Stainless Steel What Are the Types and Properties of Steel? Magnesium Characteristics, Properties, and Applications Composition of Common Brass Alloys Metal Profile: Steel Nickel Metal Profile Brass Alloy Additives Interesting Facts About Metal Alloys The Meaning of Oxidized Metal Type 304 and 304L Stainless Steel Why Is Stainless Steel Stainless?