Humanities › History & Culture Mongolia Facts, Religion, Language, and History Share Flipboard Email Print enkhtamir/Pixabay History & Culture Asian History Central Asia Basics Figures & Events Southeast Asia East Asia South Asia Middle East Asian Wars and Battles American History African American History African History Ancient History and Culture European History Genealogy Inventions Latin American History Medieval & Renaissance History Military History The 20th Century Women's History View More By Kallie Szczepanski History Expert Ph.D., History, Boston University J.D., University of Washington School of Law B.A., History, Western Washington University Dr. Kallie Szczepanski is a history teacher specializing in Asian history and culture. She has taught at the high school and university levels in the U.S. and South Korea. our editorial process Kallie Szczepanski Updated March 16, 2019 Mongolia takes pride in its nomadic roots. Befitting this tradition, there are no major cities in the country other than Ulaan Baatar, the Mongolian capital. Government Since 1990, Mongolia has had a multi-party parliamentary democracy. All citizens over the age of 18 can vote. The head of state is the President, but executive power is shared with the Prime Minister. The Prime Minister nominates the Cabinet, which is approved by the legislature. The legislative body is called the Great Hural, which is made up of 76 deputies. Mongolia has a civil law system that is based on the laws of Russia and continental Europe. The highest court is the Constitutional Court, which primarily hears questions of constitutional law. Population Mongolia's population rose above three million in the 2010s. An additional four million ethnic Mongols live in Inner Mongolia, which is part of China. Approximately 94 percent of the population of Mongolia are ethnic Mongols, mainly from the Khalkha clan. About nine percent of the ethnic Mongols come from the Durbet, Dariganga, and other clans. An estimated five percent of Mongolian citizens are members of Turkic peoples, primarily Kazakhs and Uzbeks. There are also tiny populations of other minorities, including Tuvans, Tungus, Chinese, and Russians, which number at less than one percent each. Languages Khalkha Mongol is the official language of Mongolia and the primary language of 90 percent of Mongolians. Other tongues used in Mongolia include different dialects of Mongolian, Turkic languages (such as Kazakh, Tuvan, and Uzbek), and Russian. Khalkha is written with the Cyrillic alphabet. Russian is the most common foreign language spoken in Mongolia, although both English and Korean are used as well. Mongolian Religion The vast majority of Mongolians, around 94 percent of the population, practice Tibetan Buddhism. The Gelugpa, or "Yellow Hat," school of Tibetan Buddhism gained prominence in Mongolia during the 16th century. Six percent of the Mongolian population are Sunni Muslim, mainly members of the Turkic minorities. Two percent of Mongolians are Shamanist, following the traditional belief system of the region. Mongolian Shamanists worship their ancestors and the clear blue sky. The total makeup of Mongolia's religions is above 100 percent because some Mongolians practice both Buddhism and Shamanism. Geography Mongolia is a land-locked country sandwiched between Russia and China. It covers an area of about 1,564,000 square kilometers, making it roughly the size of Alaska. Mongolia is known for its steppe lands. These are the dry, grassy plains that support the traditional Mongolian herding lifestyle. Some areas of Mongolia are mountainous, however, while others are desert. The highest point in Mongolia is Nayramadlin Orgil, at 4,374 meters (14,350 feet) tall. The lowest point is Hoh Nuur, at 518 meters (1,700 feet) tall. Climate Mongolia has a harsh continental climate with very little rainfall and wide seasonal temperature variations. Winters are long and bitterly cold in Mongolia, with average temperatures in January hovering around -30 C (-22 F). Capital Ulaan Bataar is the coldest and windiest nation capital on Earth. Summers are short and hot, and most precipitation falls during the summer months. Rain and snowfall totals are only 20-35 cm (8-14 inches) per year in the north and 10-20 cm (4-8 inches) in the south. Nevertheless, freak snowstorms sometimes drop more than a meter (3 feet) of snow, burying livestock. Economy The economy of Mongolia depends upon mineral mining, livestock and animal products, and textiles. Minerals are a primary export, including copper, tin, gold, molybdenum, and tungsten. The currency of Mongolia is the tugrik. History Mongolia's nomadic people have at times hungered for goods from settled cultures — items such as fine metal-work, silk cloth, and weapons. To get these items, the Mongols would unite and raid surrounding peoples. The first great confederation was the Xiongnu, organized in 209 B.C. The Xiongnu were such a persistent threat to China's Qin Dynasty that the Chinese began work on a massive fortification: the Great Wall of China. In 89 A.D., the Chinese defeated the Northern Xiongnu at the Battle of Ikh Bayan. The Xiongnu fled west, eventually making their way to Europe. There, they became known as the Huns. Other tribes soon took their place. First the Gokturks, then the Uighurs, the Khitans, and the Jurchens gained ascendancy in the region. Mongolia's fractious tribes were united in 1206 A.D. by a warrior named Temujin, who became known as Genghis Khan. He and his successors conquered most of Asia, including the Middle East, and Russia. The Mongol Empire's strength waned after the overthrow of their centerpiece, the Yuan Dynasty rulers of China, in 1368. In 1691, the Manchus, founders of China's Qing Dynasty, conquered Mongolia. Although the Mongols of "Outer Mongolia" retained some autonomy, their leaders had to swear an oath of allegiance to the Chinese emperor. Mongolia was a province of China between 1691 and 1911, and again from 1919 to 1921. The present-day border between Inner (Chinese) Mongolia and Outer (independent) Mongolia was drawn in 1727 when Russia and China signed the Treaty of Khiakta. As the Manchu Qing Dynasty grew weaker in China, Russia began to encourage Mongolian nationalism. Mongolia declared its independence from China in 1911 when the Qing Dynasty fell. Chinese troops recaptured Outer Mongolia in 1919, while the Russians were distracted by their revolution. However, Moscow occupied Mongolia's capital at Urga in 1921, and Outer Mongolia became a People's Republic under Russian influence in 1924. Japan invaded Mongolia in 1939 but was thrown back by Soviet-Mongolian troops. Mongolia joined the UN in 1961. At that time, relations between the Soviets and Chinese were souring rapidly. Caught in the middle, Mongolia tried to remain neutral. In 1966, the Soviet Union sent a large number of ground forces into Mongolia to face down the Chinese. Mongolia began to expel its ethnic Chinese citizens in 1983. In 1987, Mongolia began to pull away from the USSR. It established diplomatic relations with the U.S. and saw large-scale pro-democracy protests in 1989 and 1990. The first democratic elections for the Great Hural were held in 1990, and the first presidential election in 1993. In the decades after Mongolia's peaceful transition to democracy began, the country developed slowly but steadily. Source "Mongolia Population." WorldOMeters, 2019.