Music Theory 101 - Clefs, Notes and the Staff

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G Clef

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It is the commonly used clef in music. It is the sign placed on the staff in a musical score to indicate placement of the G above middle C. On the piano the G clef or treble clef is played by the right hand.
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F Clef

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The sign placed on the music staff to indicate placement of the F below middle C. On the piano the F clef or bass clef is played by the left hand.
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Grand Staff

Grand staff. Public Domain Image
The staff is a series of five horizontal lines and four spaces. The clef is placed at the beginning of the staff to indicate placement of the notes on the lines and spaces. The treble and bass clefs are the two most common clefs. The combination of a staff line with a treble and bass clef forms a grand staff. The grand staff is used primarily in piano scoring and other keyboard instruments.
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Whole Note

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A note that lasts for 4 beats.
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Half Note

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It is a note that has 2 beats. 2 half notes is equal to one whole note.
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Quarter Note

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It is a note that has 1 beat. 4 quarter notes is equal to one whole note.
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Eighth Note

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It is a note that has 1/8 the beat of a whole note. More simply put, it gets 1/2 beat. 2 eighth notes is equal to a quarter note.
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Sixteenth Note

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A note equivalent to 1/16 of the time duration of a whole note. More simply put, it is a note that gets 1/4 beat. 2 sixteenth notes is equal to one eighth note.
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Thirty-second Note

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It is a note that lasts 1/32 the duration of a whole note. Two 32nd notes is equal to one 16th note.
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Sixty-fourth Note

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A note that is 1/64 the time duration of a whole note. Two 64th notes is equal to one 32nd note.
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Estrella, Espie. "Music Theory 101 - Clefs, Notes and the Staff." ThoughtCo, Nov. 19, 2012, thoughtco.com/music-theory-clefs-notes-the-staff-2456578. Estrella, Espie. (2012, November 19). Music Theory 101 - Clefs, Notes and the Staff. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/music-theory-clefs-notes-the-staff-2456578 Estrella, Espie. "Music Theory 101 - Clefs, Notes and the Staff." ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/music-theory-clefs-notes-the-staff-2456578 (accessed November 24, 2017).