Non-Members of the United Nations

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Rosenberg, Matt. "Non-Members of the United Nations." ThoughtCo, Jul. 10, 2017, thoughtco.com/non-members-of-the-united-nations-1435429. Rosenberg, Matt. (2017, July 10). Non-Members of the United Nations. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/non-members-of-the-united-nations-1435429 Rosenberg, Matt. "Non-Members of the United Nations." ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/non-members-of-the-united-nations-1435429 (accessed October 19, 2017).
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Although most of the world's 196 countries have joined forces to tackle global issues like global warming, trade policy, and human rights and humanitarian issues through joined the United Nations as members, three countries are not members of the U.N.: Kosovo, Palestine, and Vatican City.

All three, however, are considered Non-member States of the United Nations and have therefore received standing invitations to participate as observers of the General Assembly and are provided free access to documents of the United Nations.

Although not specifically dictated in provisions of the United Nations, the non-member permanent observer status has been recognized as a matter of practice in the U.N. since 1946 when the Swiss Government was given the status by the Secretary-General.

More often than not, permanent observers later join the United Nations as full members when their independence has been recognized by more members and their governments and economy have stabilized enough to be able to provide financial, military or humanitarian support for international initiatives of the United Nations.

Kosovo

Kosovo declared independence from Serbia on February 17, 2008, but has not gained complete international recognition to allow it to become a member of the United Nations. Still, at least one member country of the U.N. recognizes Kosovo as capable of independence, though it technically still remains part of Serbia, acting as an independent province.

However, Kosovo is not listed as an official non-member state of the United Nations, though it has joined the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank, which are two other international communities focused more on international economy and global trade rather than geopolitical issues.

Kosovo does hope to one day join the United Nations as a full member, but political unrest in the region, as well as the ongoing United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK), have kept the country from political stability to the degree required to join as a functioning member state.

Palestine

Palestine currently operates on a Permanent Observer Mission of the State of Palestine to the United Nations because of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict and its subsequent fight for independence. Until such a time as the conflict is resolved, though, the United Nations cannot allow Palestine to become a full member because of a conflict of interest with Israel, which is a member state.

Unlike other conflicts in the past, namely Taiwan-China, the United Nations favors a two-state resolution to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict wherein both states emerge from the battle as independent nations under a peaceful pact.

If this does happen, Palestine would almost certainly be accepted as a full member of the United Nations, though that depends on member states' votes during the next General Assembly.

Taiwan

In 1971 the People's Republic of China (mainland China) replaced Taiwan (also known as the Republic of China) in the United Nations, and to this day the status of Taiwan remains in limbo because of political unrest between those claiming Taiwanese independence and PRC's insistence on control over the entire region.

The General Assembly has not fully extended the non-member state status of Taiwan since 2012 because of this unrest.

Unlike Palestine, however, the United Nations does not favor a two-state resolution and has subsequently not offered non-member status to Taiwan as to not offend the People's Republic of China, which is a member state.

The Holy See — Vatican City 

The independent papal state of 771 people (including the Pope) was created in 1929, but they have not chosen to become part of the international organization. Still, Vatican City currently operates in the United Nations as a Permanent Observer Mission of the Holy See to the U.N.

Essentially, this just means that the Holy See—which is separate from Vatican City State — has access to all parts of the United Nations but does not get to cast a vote in the General Assembly, largely because of the Pope's preference to not immediately affect international policy.

The Holy See is the only fully independent nation to choose not to be a member of the United Nations.