Notable Authors of the 19th Century

Literary Figures of the 1800s

The 19th century was known for an amazing group of literary figures. Using the links below, learn about some of the most influential authors of the 1800s.

01
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Photograph of Charles Dickens writing at a desk.
Charles Dickens. Getty Images

Charles Dickens was the most popular Victorian novelist and is still considered a titan of literature. He endured a notoriously difficult childhood yet developed work habits which allowed him to write lengthy yet brilliant novels, generally under deadline pressure.

In classic books including Oliver Twist, David Copperfield, and Great Expectations, Dickens portrayed the human condition while also documenting the social conditions of Victorian Britain.

02
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Civil War era photograph of Walt Whitman.
Walt Whitman. Library of Congress

Walt Whitman was the greatest American poet and his classic volume Leaves of Grass was considered both a radical departure from convention and a literary masterpiece. Whitman, who had been a printer in his youth and worked as a journalist while also writing poetry, viewed himself as a new type of American artist.

Whitman worked as a volunteer nurse during the Civil War, and wrote movingly of the conflict as well as his great devotion to Abraham Lincoln.

03
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Engraved portrait of author Washington Irving
Washington Irving first achieved fame as a young satirist in New York City. Stock Montage/Getty Images

Washington Irving, a native New Yorker, became the first great American author. He made his name with a satirical masterpiece, A History of New York, and would go on to create such memorable characters as Rip Van Winkle and Ichabod Crane.

Irving's writings were highly influential in the early 19th century, and his collection The Sketchbook was widely read. And one of Irving's early essays gave New York City its enduring nickname of "Gotham."

04
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Engraved portrait of Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe. Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Edgar Allan Poe did not live a long life, yet the work he did in a concentrated career established him as one of the most influential writers in history. Poe pioneered the form of the short story, and he also contributed to the development of such genres as horror tales and detective fiction.

Within Poe's troubled life reside the clues to how he could conceive of the astounding stories and poetry for which he is widely remembered today.

05
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Painting of author Herman Melville
Herman Melville, painted by Joseph Eaton circa 1870. Hulton Fine Art/Getty Images

Novelist Herman Melville is best known for his masterpiece, Moby Dick, a book which was essentially misunderstood and ignored for decades. Based on Melville's own experience on a whaling ship as well as published accounts of a real white whale, it mostly mystified readers and critics of the mid-1800s.

For a time, Melville had enjoyed popular success with the books that preceded Moby Dick, especially Typee, which was based on time he had spent stranded in the South Pacific.

06
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Photograph of Ralph Waldo Emerson
Ralph Waldo Emerson. Stock Montage/Getty Images

From his roots as a Unitarian minister, Ralph Waldo Emerson developed into America's homegrown philosopher, advocating a love of nature and becoming the center of the New England Transcendentalists.

In essays such as "Self Reliance," Emerson put forth a distinctly American approach to living. And he exerted influence not only on the general public but on other authors, including his friends Henry David Thoreau and Margaret Fuller as well as Walt Whitman and John Muir.

07
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Portrait of author Henry David Thoreau
Henry David Thoreau. Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Henry David Thoreau seems to stand in contract to the 19th century, as he was an outspoken voice for simple living at a time when society was racing into an industrial age. And while Thoreau remained fairly obscure in his own time, he has become one of the most beloved authors of the 19th century.

His masterpiece, Walden, is widely read, and his essay "Civil Disobedience" has been cited as an influence on social activists to the present day.

08
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Anti-Lynching Crusader Ida B. Wells
Ida B. Wells. Fotoresearch/Getty Images

Ida B. Wells was born to a slave family in the Deep South and became widely known as a journalist in the 1890s for her work exposing the horrors of lyching. She not only collected important data on the number of lynchings taking place in America, but wrote movingly about the crisis.

09
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Photographic portrait of journalist Jacob Riis.
Jacob Riis. Fotosearch/Getty Images

An immigrant working as a journalist, Jacob Riis felt great empathy for the poorest members of society. His work as a newspaper reporter took him into immigrant neighborhoods, and he began to document conditions in both words and images, using the latest advances in flash photography. His book How the Other Half Lives had an impact on American society and urban politics in the 1890s.

10
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Portrait of early feminist writer Margaret Fuller
Margaret Fuller. Getty Images

Margaret Fuller was an early feminist activist, author, and editor who first gained prominence editing The Dial, the magazine of the New England Transcendentalists. She later became the first female newspaper columnist in New York City while working for Horace Greeley at the New York Tribune.

Fuller traveled to Europe, married an Italian revolutionary and had a baby, and then died tragically in a shipwreck while returning to America with her husband and child. Though she died young, her writings proved influential throughout the 19th century.

11
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Photograph of John Muir reading
John Muir. Library of Congress

John Muir was a mechanical wizard who probably could have made a great living designing machinery for the growing factories of the 19th century, but he literally walked away from it to live, as he put it himself, "as a tramp."

Muir traveled to California and became associated with Yosemite Valley. His writings about the beauty of the Sierras inspired political leaders to set aside lands for preservation, and he has been called the "father of the National Parks."

12
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Engraved portrait of Frederick Douglass
Frederick Douglass. Hulton Archive/Getty Images

Frederick Douglass was born into slavery on a plantation in Maryland, managed to escape to freedom as a young man, and became an eloquent voice against the institution of slavery. His autobiography, The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, became a national sensation.

Douglass gained great fame as a public speaker, and was one of the most influential voices of the abolition movement.

13
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Portrait of Charles Darwin at his home, Down House
Charles Darwin. English Heritage/Heritage Images/Getty Images

Charles Darwin was trained as a scientist, and developed considerable reporting and writing skill while on a five-year research voyage aboard H.M.S. Beagle. His published account of his scientific journey was successful, but he had a far more important project in mind.

After years of work, Darwin published On the Origin of Species in 1859. His book would shake up the scientific community and completely change the way people thought about mankind. Darwin's book was one of the most influential books ever published.

14
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Engraved portrait of William Carleton
William Carleton. Getty Images

The Irish author William Carleton published many popular novels, but his most important work, Traits and Stories of the Irish Peasantry, was written early in his career. In the classic text, Carleton related fictionalized versions of stories he had heard during his childhood in rural Ireland. Carleton's book essentially functions as a valuable social history of what peasant life was like in Ireland at the beginning of the 19th century.

15
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Photographic portrait of Nathaniel Hawthorne
Nathaniel Hawthorne. Getty Images

The author of The Scarlet Letter and The House of the Seven Gables often incorporated New England history into his fiction. He was also politically involved, working at times in patronage jobs and even writing a campaign biography for a college friend, Franklin Pierce. His literary influence was felt in his own time, to the extent that Herman Melville dedicated Moby Dick to him.

16
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Engraved portrait of editor Horace Greeley
Horace Greeley. Stock Montage/Getty Images

The brilliant and eccentric editor of the New York Tribune voiced strong opinions, and Horace Greeley's opinions often became mainstream sentiment. He opposed slavery and believed in the candidacy of Abraham Lincoln, and after Lincoln became president Greeley often advised him, though not always politely.

Greeley also believed in the promise of the West. And he's perhaps best remembered for the phrase, "Go west, young man, go west."

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George Perkins Marsh is not remembered as widely as Henry David Thoreau or John Muir, but he published an important book, Man and Nature, which greatly influenced the environmental movement. Marsh's book was a serious discussion of how man uses, and misuses, the natural world.

At a time when conventional belief held that man could simply exploit the earth and its natural resources with no penalty, George Perkins Marsh offered a valuable and needed warning.

18
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The phrase "Horatio Alger story" is still used to describe someone who overcame great obstacles to achieve success. The famed author Horatio Alger wrote a series of books describing impoverished youth who worked hard and lived virtuous lives, and were rewarded in the end.

Horatio Alger actually lived a troubled life, and it appears that his creation of iconic role models for American youth may have been an attempt to hide a scandalous personal life.

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The creator of Sherlock Holmes, Arthur Conan Doyle, felt trapped at times by his own success. He wrote other books and stories which he felt were superior to the extraordinarily popular detective stores featuring Holmes and his loyal sidekick Watson. But the public always wanted more Sherlock Holmes.