The Number of Jews Killed During the Holocaust by Country

Memorial at the Majdanek Concentration Camp.
Memorial at Majdanek Concentration Camp, Poland. (Photo by Tim Graham/Getty Images)

During the Holocaust, the Nazis murdered an estimated six million Jews. These were Jews from across Europe, who spoke different languages and had different cultures. Some of them were wealthy and some of them were poor. Some were assimilated and some were Orthodox. What they did have in common was that all of them had at least one Jewish grandparent, which was how the Nazis defined who was Jewish.

The Nazis forced Jews out of their homes, crowded them into ghettos, and then deported them to either a concentration or a death camp. Most died of either starvation, disease, overwork, shooting, or gas, and then their bodies were either dumped into a mass grave or cremated. 

Never in the history of the world had there been such a large-scale, systematic genocide as that conducted by the Nazis during the Holocaust.

Estimating the Holocaust Murders 

Because of the vast numbers of Jews murdered, no one is absolutely sure how many died in each camp, but there are decent estimates of deaths by camp. The same is true about estimates per country. 

There is no single wartime document that estimates the number of Jewish deaths during the Holocaust. Between 1942 and 1943, the Nazis did attempt to compile statistics for their final solution; one copy of that record was captured by the U.S. Army in 1945.

By late 1943, however, the German and Axis authorities recognized they were losing the war and had no time to continue counting. Instead, they ramped up the number of deaths and began destroying existing records and evidence of previous mass murders. Total estimates used today are based on postwar studies and research of the existing data.

New Estimates

A study published in 2013 by the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, based on a painstaking evaluation of available documents and investigation of 42,000 camps and ghettos identified that the total number of deaths was almost double the numbers generated shortly after the war. That study has been compiled in the 2018 three-volume Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933-1945. 

In addition to at least 7 million Jews killed, the Axis killed around 5.7 million non-Jewish Soviet citizens, around 3 million non-Jewish Soviet prisoners of war, 300,000 Serb citizens, around 250,000 people with disabilities living in institutions, around 300,000 Roma (Gypsies), and Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals, and German political opponents account for at least another 100,000 people. Estimates of the total number of people who died in the Holocaust now range between 15 and 20 million. 

The Chart of Jews Killed, by Country

The following chart shows the estimated number of Jews killed during the Holocaust by country. Notice that Poland by far lost the largest number (three million), with Russia having lost the second most (one million). The third highest losses were from Hungary (550,000).

Notice also that despite the smaller numbers in Slovakia and Greece, for example, they still lost an estimated 80 and 87 percent respectively of their pre-war Jewish populations.

The totals for all countries show that an estimated 58 percent of all Jews in Europe were killed during the Holocaust.

The following figures are estimates, based on census reports, captured German and Axis archived records and postwar investigations, and according to the latest investigations by ​The U.S. Museum of the Holocaust.  

 

Country

Pre-war Jewish Population

Estimated Murdered

Albania200unknown
Austria185,00065,500
Belgium90,00025,000
Bulgaria50,000unknown
Czechoslovakia709,000590,000
Denmark7,50080
Estonia4,5001,000
France315,00074,000
Germany237,000165,000
Greece 72,00069,000
Hungary825,000560,000
Italy100,0008,000
Latvia93,50070,000
Lithuania153,000130,000
Luxembourg4,0001,200
Netherlands140,000100,000
Norway1,800760
Poland3,350,0003,000,000
Romania1,070,000480,000
Soviet Union3,030,0001,340,000
Yugoslavia203,500164,500
Total:10,641,8006,844,040

Sources and Other Estimates

Dawidowicz, Lucy. The War Against the Jews, 1933-1945 (New York: Bantam Books, 1986) 403.

"Documenting numbers of victims of the Holocaust and Nazi persecution." United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Web.

Edelheit, Abraham and Hershel Edelheit, History of the Holocaust: A Handbook and Dictionary (Boulder: Westview Press, 1994) 266.

Gutman, Israel (ed.). Encyclopedia of the Holocaust (New York: Macmillan Library Reference USA, 1990) 1799.

Hilberg, Raul. Destruction of European Jews (New York: Holmes & Meier Publishers, 1985) 1220.

Megargee, Geoffrey (ed.). Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos, 1933-1945. The United  States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Three volumes. Bloomington: Indiana University Press (2018).