Learn About the Organ Systems in the Human Body

Organ system
Organ systems consists of groups of organs that function cooperatively in the body. PIXOLOGICSTUDIO/Science Photo Library/Getty Images

Organ Systems

The human body is made up of several organ systems that work together as one unit. Organ systems fit between the hierarchical levels of organs and the organism. Ten major organ systems of the body are listed below along with several organs that are associated with each system. It is important to keep in mind that these organ systems don't just exist as individual units. The final product of these cooperating systems is one unit called the body.

Each system depends on the others, either directly or indirectly, to keep the body functioning normally.

1. Circulatory System

The main function of the circulatory system is to transport nutrients and gasses to cells and tissues throughout body. This is accomplished by the circulation of blood. Two components of this system are the cardiovascular and lymphatic systems.

2. Digestive System

The digestive system breaks down food polymers into smaller molecules to provide energy for the body.

Digestive juices and enzymes are secreted to break down the carbohydrates, fat, and protein in food.

  • Primary organs: mouth, stomach, intestines, rectum
  • Accessory organs: teeth, tongue, liver, pancreas

3. Endocrine System

The endocrine system regulates vital processes in the body including growth, homeostasis, metabolism, and sexual development.

Endocrine organs secrete hormones to regulate body processes.

4. Integumentary System

The integumentary system protects the internal structures of the body from damage, prevents dehydration, stores fat and produces vitamines and hormones.

  • Integumentary structures: skin, nails, hair, sweat glands

5. Muscular System

The muscular system enables movement through the contraction of muscles.

6. Nervous System

The nervous system monitors and coordinates internal organ function and responds to changes in the external environment.

7. Reproductive System

The reproductive system enables the production of offspring through sexual reproduction. It is comprised of male and female reproductive organs and structures which produce sex cells and ensure the growth and development of offspring.

  • Male organs: testes, scrotum, penis, vas deferens, prostate
  • Female organs: ovaries, uterus, vagina, mammary glands

8. Respiratory System

The respiratory system provides the body with oxygen via gas exchange between air from the outside environment and gases in the blood.

  • Respiratory organs: lungs, nose, trachea, bronchi

9. Skeletal System

The skeletal System: This system supports and protects the body while giving it shape and form.

  • Structures: bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, cartilage

10. Urinary/Excretory System

The urinary/excretory System removes wastes and maintains water balance in the body.

  • Structures: kidneys, urinary bladder, urethra, ureters