Past United Nations Missions in Africa

Listed with Context and Outcomes

Former UN Missions in Africa by Start Date
AcronymStart DateEnd DateNameContextOutcome

 

 

ONUC

 

 

July '60

 

 

June '64

 

 

UN Operations in the Congo

 

 

Independence from Belgium

Katanga's attempted secession

 

Prime Minister Patrice Lumumba was assassinated, at which point the mission was expanded.

The Congo retained the secessionist province of Katanga. 

Mission followed by civilian aid.

 

 

UNAVEM I

 

 

Jan. '89

 

 

May '91

 

 

UN Angola Verification Mission

 

 

Angola's lengthy civil war

 

Cuban troops were withdrawn one month ahead of schedule, having completed their mission.

Mission followed by: UNAVEM II & UNAVEM III

 

 

UNTAG

 

 

April '90

 

 

March '90

 

 

UN Transition Assistance Group

 

 

Angolan Civil War and Namibia's transition to independence from South Africa

 

South African troops departed

Elections were held and a new constitution approved.

Namibia joined the UN

 

 

UNAVEM II

 

 

May '91

 

 

Feb. '95

 

 

UN Angola Verification Mission II

 

 

Angolan Civil War

 

Elections were held in 1991, but the results were rejected and violence escalated.

Mission transitioned to: UNAVEM III

 

 

UNOSOM I

 

 

April '92

 

 

March '93

 

 

UN Operation in Somalia I

 

 

Somali Civil War

 

The violence in Somalia continued to escalate, making it difficult for UNOSOM I to deliver relief aid. 

The United States created a second operation, the Unified Task Force (UNITAF), to help UNOSOM I protect and distribute humanitarian aid.

In 1993, the UN created  UNOSOM II to replace UNOSOM I and UNITAF.

 

 

ONUMOZ

 

 

Dec. '92

 

 

Dec. '94

 

 

UN Operations in Mozambique

 

 

Conclusion of the Civil War in Mozambique

 

The ceasefire was successful. Mozambique's then government and the major rivals (RENAMO) demobilized troops, displaced persons were resettled, and elections were held.

 

 

 

UNOSOM II

 

 

March '93

 

 

March '95

 

 

UN Operation in Somalia II

 

 

Somali Civil War

 

After the Battle of Mogadishu in Oct. '93, the United States and several Western countries withdrew their troops from UNOSOM II.

The UN voted to withdrawn UN troops from Somalia having failed to establish a ceasefire or disarmament.

 

 

 

UNOMUR

 

 

June '93

 

 

Sept. '94

 

 

UN Observer Mission Uganda-Rwanda

 

 

Fighting between the Rwandan Patriotic Front (based in Uganda) and the Rwandan Government

 

The Observer Mission encountered many difficulties in monitoring the border, due to the terrain and the competing Rwandan and Ugandan factions.

After the Rwandan genocide, the mission's mandate came to an end and it was not renewed. The mission was succeeded instead by UNAMIR, which had already begun its operations. 

 

 

UNOMI

 

 

Sept. '93

 

 

Sept. '97

 

 

UN Observer Mission in Liberia

 

 

The First Liberian Civil War

 

UNOMI was to support ongoing efforts by ECOWAS to bring an end to the war and ensure fair elections.

In 1997 elections were held and the mission terminated. The United Nations established a Peace-building Support Office in Liberia, but within a few years the Second Liberian Civil War had broken out.

 

 

 

UNAMIR

 

 

Oct. '93

 

 

March '96

 

 

UN Assistance Mission for Rwanda

 

 

Rwandan Civil War between the RPF and Rwandan government

 

Due to both its restrictive rules of engagement and an unwillingness on the part of Western governments to risk their troops in Rwanda , the mission did little to stop the Rwandan genocide (Apr '94-June '94). 

Afterwards, UNAMIR did  distribute and ensure humanitarian aid, but the failure to intervene in the genocide overshadows these significant but belated efforts.

 

 

UNASOG

 

 

May '94

 

 

June '94

 

 

UN Aouzou Strip Observation Group

 

 

Conclusion of the territorial dispute (1973-1994) between Chad and Libya over the Aouzou Strip.

 

Both governments signed a declaration agreeing that Libyan troops and administration had been withdrawn as previously agreed upon.

 

 

 

UNAVEM III

 

 

Feb. '95

 

 

June 1997

 

 

 

UN Angola Verification Mission III

 

 

Angola's Civil War

 

A government was formed by UNITA, but all parties continued to import arms. The situation also deteriorated with the involvement of Angola in the Congo Conflict.

Followed y MONUA.

 

 

MONUA

 

 

June '97

 

 

Feb. '99

 

 

UN Observer Mission in Angola

 

 

Angola's Civil War

 

Fighting in the civil war resumed and the UN withdrew its troops, while urging a continuation of humanitarian aid.

 

 

 

MINURCA

 

 

April '98

 

 

Feb. '00

 

 

UN Mission in the Central African Republic

 

Signing of the Bangui Accord between rebel forces and the Central African Republic's government

Dialogue between parties continued and the peace was maintained.

Elections were held, after several previous attempts, in 1999, and the UN Mission withdrew.

MINURCA was followed by a UN Peace-building Support Office in the Central African Republic.

 

 

UNOMSIL

 

 

July '98

 

 

Oct. '99

 

 

UN Observer Mission in Sierra Leone

 

 

Sierra Leone's Civil War (1991-2002)

 

Combatants signed the controversial Lome Peace Agreement. 

The UN authorized a new mission, UNAMSIL, to replace UNOMSIL.

 

 

 

UNAMSIL

 

 

Oct. '99

 

 

Dec. '05

 

 

UN Mission in Sierra Leone

 

 

Sierra Leone's Civil War (1991-2002)

 The mission was expanded three times in 2000 and 2001 as fighting continued.

The war ended in Dec. 2002, and UNAMSIL troops were slowly withdrawn.

Mission followed by the UN Integrated Office for Sierra Leone, which was created to consolidate the peace in Sierra Leone.

 

 

MONUC

 

 

Nov. '99

 

 

May 2010

 

 

UN Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

 

 

Conclusion of the First Congo War and the Second Congo War

 

The Second Congo War began. It officially ended in 2002, but fighting by various rebel groups continued.

In 2010, MONUC was criticized for not intervening to stop mass rapes near one of its stations.

The Mission was renamed the UN Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

 

 

UNMEE

 

 

June 2000

 

 

July 2008

 

 

UN Observer Mission in Ethiopia and Eritrea

 

A ceasefire signed by Ethiopia and Eritrea in their ongoing border dispute.

 

The mission was ended after Eritrea imposed numerous restrictions that prevented effective operation.

 

 

 

MINUCI

 

 

May 2003

 

 

April 2004

 

 

UN Operation in Côte d'Ivoire

 

Failed implementation of the Linas-Marcoussis Agreement, which was to end the ongoing conflict in the country.

 

MINUCI was replaced by the UN Operation in Côte d'Ivoire

 

Sources:

"Past Peacekeeping Operations", United Nations Peacekeeping.