Humanities › History & Culture Timeline of the Persian Empire From 3400 B.C.E. to 642 C.E. Share Flipboard Email Print Franciszek Smuglewicz / Wikimedia Commons / PD-Art History & Culture Ancient History and Culture Asia Figures & Events Ancient Languages Greece Egypt Rome Mythology & Religion American History African American History African History Asian History European History Genealogy Inventions Latin American History Medieval & Renaissance History Military History The 20th Century Women's History View More By N.S. Gill Ancient History and Latin Expert M.A., Linguistics, University of Minnesota B.A., Latin, University of Minnesota N.S. Gill is a Latinist, writer, and teacher of ancient history and Latin. She has been featured by NPR and National Geographic for her ancient history expertise. our editorial process N.S. Gill Updated May 15, 2020 The Persian Empire, or modern-day Iran, had a rich past full of highs and lows for the region's people. The following timeline of major events in Persia's history is based on a Library of Congress Persia timeline. Early History c. 3400 BCE - the Elamite kingdom emerges in southwestern Iran and Mesopotamia.c. 2000 BCE - Nomadic peoples—Scythians, Medes, and Persians—move from Central Asia to the Iranian plateau. 6th Century B.C.E. c. 553-550 BCE - Cyrus II (Cyrus the Great) overthrows the Median king and becomes ruler of Persia and Media; he founds the Achaemenid Empire.539 BCE - Cyrus captures Babylon and releases Jews from captivity.525 B.C. - Cyrus's son Cambyses II conquers Egypt.522 BCE - Darius I becomes king. He re-establishes and extends the empire, carrying out administrative reorganization. 5th Century B.C.E. 490 BCE - Darius invades the Greek mainland and is defeated at the Battle of Marathon. 4th Century B.C.E. 334 BCE - Alexander the Great begins a Persian campaign. He completes his conquest of Persia and Mesopotamia in 330 BCE.323 BCE - The death of Alexander leads to the division of the empire among generals. Seleucids emerge as principal heirs in Iran. 3rd Century B.C.E. 247 BCE - The Parthians overthrow the Seleucids, establishing their own dynasty. 3rd Century C.E. 224 CE - Ardeshir overthrows the last Parthian ruler, establishing the Sassanian dynasty with the capital at Ctesiphon.260 CE - Shahpur I wages a campaign against the Romans, taking emperor Valerian captive. 7th Century 637 - Muslim armies capture Ctesiphon and the Sassanian Empire begins to crumble.641-42 - The Sassanian army is defeated at Nahavand. Iran comes under Muslim rule.