Humanities › History & Culture Timeline of the Persian Empire From 3400 BCE to 642 CE Share Flipboard Email Print Franciszek Smuglewicz / Wikimedia Commons / PD-Art History & Culture Ancient History and Culture Asia Figures & Events Ancient Languages Greece Egypt Rome Mythology & Religion American History African American History African History Asian History European History Genealogy Inventions Latin American History Medieval & Renaissance History Military History The 20th Century Women's History View More By N.S. Gill Ancient History and Latin Expert M.A., Linguistics, University of Minnesota B.A., Latin, University of Minnesota N.S. Gill is a Latinist, writer, and teacher of ancient history and Latin. She has been featured by NPR and National Geographic for her ancient history expertise. our editorial process N.S. Gill Updated January 23, 2020 This Persia (Iran) timeline of major events is based on a Library of Congress Persia timeline. Early History c. 3400 BCE - Elamite kingdom emerges in southwestern Iran and Mesopotamia.c. 2000 BCE - Nomadic peoples -- Scythians, Medes, and Persians -- move from Central Asia to the Iranian plateau. 6th Century BCE c. 553-550 BCE - Cyrus II (Cyrus the Great) overthrows Median king; becomes ruler of Persia and Media; founds Achaemenid Empire.539 BCE - Cyrus captures Babylon, releases Jews from captivity.525 B.C.Cyrus's son Cambyses II conquers Egypt.522 BCE - Darius I becomes king; re-establishes and extends empire, carries out administrative reorganization. 5th Century BCE 490 BCE - Darius invades the Greek mainland; defeated at the Battle of Marathon. 4th Century BCE 334 BCE - Alexander the Great begins Persian campaign; completes conquest of Persia and Mesopotamia, 330 BCE.323 BCE - Death of Alexander; division of empire among generals; Seleucids emerge as principal heirs in Iran. 3rd Century BCE 247 BCE - Parthians overthrow Seleucids; establish their own dynasty. 3rd Century CE 224 CE - Ardeshir overthrows the last Parthian ruler; establishes the Sassanian dynasty with capital at Ctesiphon.260 CE -Shahpur I wages a campaign against the Romans, takes emperor Valerian captive. 7th Century 637 - Muslim armies capture Ctesiphon, the Sassanian Empire begins to crumble.641-42 - Sassanian army defeated at Nahavand; Iran comes under Muslim rule.