10 Popular Surnames That Derived From Occupations

When surnames first came into popular use in 12th-century Europe, many people came to be identified by what they did for a living. A blacksmith named John, became John Smith. A man who made his living grinding flour from grain took the name Miller. Does your family name come from the work your ancestors did long ago? 

1
BARKER

The Barker surname may have derived from someone who worked as a shepherd.
Getty / Westend61

Occupation: shepherd or leather tanner
The Barker surname may derive from the Norman word barches, meaning “shepherd,” the person who watches over a flock of sheep. Alternatively, a barker may also have been a "tanner of leather," from the Middle English bark, meaning "to tan."

2
BLACK

The Black surname can be an occupational surname given to or adopted by a cloth dyer who specializes in dark dyes.
Getty / Annie Owen

Occupation: Dyer 
Men named Black may have been cloth dyers who specialized in black dyes. In medieval times, all cloth was originally white, and had to be dyed to create colorful cloth. 

3
CARTER

The Carter surname generally derives from the occupation of someone who worked as a carter, transporting goods by cart.
Getty / Antony Giblin

Occupation: Delivery man 
A person who drove a cart pulled by oxen, carrying goods from town to town, was called a carter. This occupation eventually became the surname used to identify many such men.

4
CHANDLER

The Chandler surname most commonly derived as an occupational surname for someone who made candles.
Getty / Clive Streeter

Occupation: Candlemaker 
From the French word 'chandelier,' the Chandler surname often referred to a person who made or sold tallow or lye candles or soap. Alternatively, they may have been a retail dealer in provisions and supplies or equipment of a specified kind, such as a "ship chandler."

5
COOPER

Coopers who made and sold casks and barrels often became known by the name of their occupation.
Getty / Leon Harris

Occupation: Barrel maker 
A cooper was someone who made wooden barrels, vats, or casks; an occupation that commonly became the name they were referred to by their neighbors and friends. Related to COOPER is the surname HOOPER, which referred to the craftsmen who made the metal or wooden hoops to bind the barrels, casks, buckets, and vats made by coopers.

6
FISHER

Someone who took the surname Fisher most likely made his living as a fisherman.
Getty / Jeff Rotman

Occupation: Fisherman 
This occupational name derives from the Old English word fiscere, meaning "to catch fish." Alternate spellings of this same occupational surname include Fischer (German), Fiszer (Czech and Polish), Visser (Dutch), de Vischer (Flemish), Fiser (Danish) and Fisker (Norwegian).
 

7
KEMP

Kemp is an occupational surname often bestowed upon a strong man who was a champion at jousting or wrestling.
Getty / John Warburton-Lee

Occupation: Champion wrestler or jouster
A strong man who was a champion at jousting or wrestling may have been called by this surname, Kemp derives from the Middle English word kempe, which came from Old English cempa, meaning "warrior" or "champion." ​ 

8
MILLER

The occupational surname Miller derives from the obvious occupation of miller, or one who grinds flour from grain.
Getty / Duncan Davis

Occupation: Miller 
A man who made his living grinding flour from grain often took on the surname Miller. This same occupation is also the origin of many various spellings of the surname including Millar, Mueller, Müller, Mühler, Moller, Möller and Møller.

9
SMITH

Smith is most likely the world's most popular surname, deriving from the common medieval occupations of blacksmith, whitesmith, and tinsmith.
Getty / Edward Carlile Portraits

Occupation: Metal worker 
Anyone who worked with metal was called a smith. A blacksmith worked with iron, a whitesmith worked with tin, and a goldsmith worked with gold. This was one of the most common occupations in medieval times, so it is little wonder that SMITH is now among the most common surnames worldwide. 

10
WALLER

The Wall surname often goes back to a stone mason who specialized in building walls.
Getty / Henry Arden

Occupation: Mason 
This surname was often bestowed upon a special kind of mason; someone who specialized in building walls and wall structures. Interestingly, it may also be an occupational name for someone who boiled sea water to extract the salt, from the Middle English well(en), meaning "to boil."

More Occupational Surnames

Hundreds of surnames initially derived from the occupation of the original bearer. Some examples include: Bowman (archer), Barker (leather tanner), Collier (coal or charcoal seller), Coleman (one who gathered charcoal), Kellogg (hog breeder), Lorimer (one who made harness spurs and bits), Parker (someone in charge of a hunting park), Stoddard (horse breeder), and Tucker or Walker (one who processed raw cloth by beating and trampling it in water). Does your family name come from the work your ancestors did long ago? Search for the origin of your surname in this free Glossary of Last Name Meanings & Origins.