Pronouncing the Difficult Consonants of Spanish

Spanish for Beginners

Una cebra. (A zebra.)
Photo by Benh Lieu Song, licensed via Creative Commons.

While many of the Spanish consonants have sounds that are similar to those in English, many are distinctly different. These are listed below.

One thing to keep in mind about Spanish consonants is that they're generally softer and somewhat less distinct than their English equivalents (the most notable exceptions are the r and rr). Although their vowel sounds may be distinct, some hispanohablantes may sound to the untrained ear like they're mumbling. Keep in mind that there are some regional variations as well, although if you follow the descriptions in these lessons you will be understood.

Note the differences between the sounds of these consonants and their English counterparts in the following examples. Note also that these pronunciations are a guide only, as there are many subtle variations that can vary with locality.

Difficult Consonants of Spanish

  • C, at least in most of Latin America, is pronounced like the "c" in "cereal" when it comes before an e or an i, and like the "c" in "car" when it is other positions. Examples: complacer, hacer, ácido, carro, acabar, crimen. Note: Although you will be understood if you use the Latin American pronunciation, in parts of Spain the c sounds like the "th" in "thin" when it comes before an e or i. Learn more details in the lesson on pronouncing the C.
  • B and V are pronounced exactly the same. In fact, one of the few spelling problems that many Spanish speakers have is with these two letters, because they don't distinguish them at all from their sound. Generally, the b and v are pronounced like the "b" in "beach." When either of the letters is between two vowels, the sound is formed kind of like the English "v," except that the sound is made by touching the lips together instead of the upper teeth and lower lip. See our lesson on pronouncing the B and V for more details and a brief audio lesson.
  • D generally is pronounced somewhat like the "d" in "diet," although often the tongue touches the bottom of the teeth instead of the top. But when d comes between vowels, it has a much softer sound, kind of like the "th" in "that." Examples: derecho, helado, diablo. See our lesson on pronouncing the D for more details.
  • G is pronounced much like the English "g" in "go," although softer, except when it precedes an i or e. In those cases, it is pronounced like the Spanish j. Examples: gordo, gritar, gigante, mágico. See the lesson on pronouncing the G.
  • H is always silent. Examples: hermano, hacer, deshacer. See also the lesson on the silent H.
  • J (and the g when before an e or i) can be difficult, as its sound, that of the German ch, is absent in English except for a few foreign words where it is sometimes retained, as in the final sound of loch or the initial sound of Channukah. The sound is sometimes described as a heavily aspirated "h," made by expelling air between the back of the tongue and the soft palate. If you can't pronounce it well, you'll be understood by using the "h" sound of "house," but it's worthwhile to work on the correct pronunciation. Examples: garaje, juego, jardín. See the lesson on pronouncing the J.
  • L is always pronounced like the first "l" in "little," never like the second one. Examples: los, helado, pastel. See the lesson on pronouncing the L.
  • LL is usually pronounced like the "y" in "yellow." There are some regional variations, however. In parts of Spain it has the sound of the "ll" in "million," and in parts of Argentina it has the "zh" sound of "azure." Examples: llama, calle, Hermosillo. See the lesson on pronouncing the LL.
  • N usually has the sound of the "n" in "nice." If it is followed by a b, v, f or p, it has the sound of "m" in "empathy." Examples: no, en, en vez de, andar. Learn more in our lesson on the N.
  • Ñ is pronounced like the "ny" in "canyon." Examples: ñoño, cañón, campaña. See the lesson on pronouncing the Ñ.
  • R and RR are formed by a flap of the tongue against the roof of the mouth, or a trill. See the R and RR "how to" guides for these letters.
  • X varies in sound, depending on the origin of the word. It is often pronounced like the "x" in "example" or "exit," but it also may be pronounced like the s or the Spanish j. In words of Mayan origin it can even have the English "sh" sound. Examples: éxito, experiencia, México, Xela. See also our explanation of the Spanish X.
  • Z generally sounds like the "s" in "simple." In Spain it is often pronounced like the "th" in "thin." Examples: zeta, zorro, vez. See our lesson on pronouncing the C and Z.