Prophet Muhammad's Farewell Sermon

Text of his final Hajj address

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Mount of Mercy
Sunrise over the Mount of Mercy, where the Prophet Muhammad gave his Farewell Sermon. S.M. Amin/Saudi Aramco World/PADIA

A decade after the migration to Madinah (Hijrah), the Prophet Muhammad returned to Makkah for a final pilgrimage. Over a hundred thousand Muslims gathered on the Plain of Arafat during the Hajj pilgrimage to hear him speak. Those gathered may not have realized that this would be his final address, as he passed away just a few weeks later. In this sermon, he encouraged Muslims to embrace racial equality, to treat women well, and to remain steadfast in faith.

 

Prophet Muhammad's Farewell Address

Delivered on the Plain of Arafat, 9 Dhul-Hijjah 10 H. (632 C.E.)

After praising and thanking Allah, he said:

 

"Oh, people! Lend me an attentive ear, for I know not whether after this year, I shall ever be amongst you again. Therefore listen to what I am saying to you very carefully and take these words to those who could not be present here today.

Oh, people! Just as you regard this month, this day, this city as sacred, so regard the life and property of every Muslim as a sacred trust. Return the goods entrusted to you to their rightful owners. Hurt no one so that no one may hurt you. Remember that you will indeed meet your Lord, and that He will indeed reckon your deeds. Allah has forbidden you to take usury (interest), therefore all interest obligations shall henceforth be waived. Your capital, however, is yours to keep. You will neither inflict nor suffer any inequity. Allah has Judged that there shall be no interest...

Beware of Satan, for the safety of your religion. He has lost all hope that he will ever be able to lead you astray in big things, so beware of following him in small things.

Oh, people! It is true that you have certain rights with regard to women, but they also have rights over you. Remember that you have taken them as your wives only under Allah's trust and with His permission. If they abide by your right then to them belongs the right to be fed and clothed in kindness. Do treat your women well and be kind to them, for they are your partners and committed helpers. And it is your right that they do not make friends with any one of whom you do not approve, as well as never to be unchaste.

Oh, people! Listen to me in earnest! Worship Allah, say your five daily prayers, fast during the month of Ramadan, and give your wealth in Zakat (charity). Perform Hajj if you can afford to. Remember, one day you will appear before Allah and answer your deeds. So beware, do not stray from the path of righteousness after I am gone.

Oh, people! No prophet or apostle will come after me, and no new faith will be born. Reason well, therefore, oh people, and understand the words which I convey to you. I leave behind me two things, the Quran and my example, the Sunnah. If you follow these you will never go astray.

All those who listen to me shall pass on my words to others, and those to others again. And may the last ones understand my words better than those who listen to me directly. Be my witness, Oh Allah, that I have conveyed your message to your people."