The Provinces of the Roman Empire (Circa 120 CE)

Roman Empire with provinces
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Roman provinces (Latin proviniciae, singular provincia) were administrative and territorial units of the Roman Empire, established by various emperors as revenue-generating territories throughout Italy and then the rest of Europe as the empire expanded.

The governors of the provinces were often selected from men who had been consuls (Roman magistrates), or former praetors (the chief justice of magistrates) could also serve as governor. In some places such as Judaea, the comparatively lower ranking civil prefects were appointed the governor. The provinces provided a source of income for the governor and resources for Rome.

Varying Borders

The number and borders of the provinces under Roman rule changed nearly constantly as conditions altered in the various locations. During the latter period of the Roman Empire known as the Dominate, the provinces were each broken into smaller units. The following are the provinces at the time of Actium (31 BCE) with the dates (from Pennell) they were established (not the same as the date of acquisition) and their general location.

  • Sicilia (Sicily, 227 BCE)
  • Sardinia and Corsica (227 BCE)
  • Hispania Citerior (eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula, 205 BCE)
  • Hispania Ulterior (southern coast of the Iberian Peninsula, 205 BCE)
  • Illyricum (Croatia, 167 BCE)
  • Macedonia (mainland Greece, 146 BCE)
  • Africa (modern Tunisia and western Libya, 146 BCE)
  • Asia (modern Turkey, 133 BCE)
  • Achaia (southern and central Greece, 146 BCE)
  • Gallia Narbonensis (southern France, 118 BCE)
  • Gallia Citerior (80 BCE)
  • Cilicia (63 BCE)
  • Syria (64 BCE)
  • Bithynia and Pontus (northwestern Turkey, 63 BCE)
  • Cyprus (55 BCE)
  • Cyrenaica and Crete (63 BCE)
  • Africa Nova (eastern Numidia, 46 BCE)
  • Mauritania (46 BCE)


The following provinces were added under the emperors during the Principate:

  • Rhaetia (Switzerland, Austria, and Germany, 15 BCE)
  • Noricum (parts of Austria, Slovenia, Bavaria, 16 BCE)
  • Pannonia (Croatia, 9 BCE)
  • Moesia (Danube river region of Serbia, the Republic of Macedonia, and Bulgaria, 6 CE)
  • Dacia (Transylvania, 107 CE)
  • Britannia (Britain, 42 CE)
  • Aegyptus (Egypt, 30 BCE)
  • Cappadocia (central Turkey, 18 CE)
  • Galatia (central Turkey, 25 BCE)
  • Lycia (43 BCE)
  • Judaea (Palestine, 135 CE)
  • Arabia (Nabataea, 106 CE)
  • Mesopotamia (Iraq, 116 CE)
  • Armenia (114 CE)
  • Assyria (disagreement on location, 116 CE)

Italian Provinces

  • Latium et Campania (Regio I)
  • Apulia et Calabria (Regio II)
  • Lucania et Bruttium (Region III)
  • Samnium (Regio IV)
  • Picenum (Region V)
  • Tuscia et Umbria (Regio VI)
  • Etruria (Regio VII)
  • Aemilia (Regio VIII)
  • Liguria (Regio IX)
  • Venetia et Ager Gallicus (Regio X)
  • Transpadana (Regio XI)


Pennell RF. 1894. Ancient Rome: From the Earliest Times Down to 476 A.D. Project Guttenberg..

Smith W. 1872. A dictionary of Greek and Roman Google Books. geography, Volume 2.

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Gill, N.S. "The Provinces of the Roman Empire (Circa 120 CE)." ThoughtCo, Aug. 28, 2020, Gill, N.S. (2020, August 28). The Provinces of the Roman Empire (Circa 120 CE). Retrieved from Gill, N.S. "The Provinces of the Roman Empire (Circa 120 CE)." ThoughtCo. (accessed March 24, 2023).