Racial Projects

A Sociological Approach to Race

The phrase "end white supremacy" is an anti-racist racial project that describes society as racially stratified with whites at the top, and characterizes this as wrong.
Demonstrators in NYC hold signs protesting the St. Louis Grand Jury decision not to indict officer Darren Wilson in the shooting death of Michael Brown. November 2014. Zoran Milich/Getty Images

Racial projects are representations of race in language, thought, imagery, popular discourse and interaction that assign meaning to race and situate it within the greater social structure. This concept was developed by sociologists Michael Omi and Howard Winant’s as part of their theory of racial formation, which describes an always unfolding, contextual process of meaning-making surrounding race.

The racial formation theory posits that as part of the ongoing process of racial formation, racial projects compete to become to provide the dominant, mainstream meaning of race and racial categories in society.

Extended Definition

In their book, Racial Formation in the United States, Omi and Winant define racial projects:

A racial project is simultaneously an interpretation, representation, or explanation of racial dynamics, and an effort to reorganize and redistribute resources along particular racial lines. Racial projects connect what race means in a particular discursive practice and the ways in which both social structures and everyday experiences are racially organized, based upon that meaning.

In today’s world, complimentary, competing, and contradictory racial projects battle to define what race is, and what role it plays in society. They do this on many levels, including everyday common sense, interaction between people, and at the community and institutional levels.

Racial projects take many forms, and their statements about race and racial categories vary widely. They can be expressed in anything from legislation, political campaigns and positions on issues, policing policies, stereotypes, media representations, music, art, and Halloween costumes.

Politically speaking, neoconservative racial projects deny the significance of race, which produces colorblind racial politics and policies that do not account for the ways in which race and racism still structure society.

For example, legal scholar and civil rights attorney Michelle Alexander demonstrates in her book, The New Jim Crow, how the seemingly race-neutral “war on drugs” has been waged in a racist way due to racial biases in policing, legal proceedings, and sentencing, all of which result in the vast overrepresentation of black and Latino men in U.S. prisons. This colorblind racial project represents race as inconsequential in society, and suggests that those who find themselves in prison are simply criminals who deserve to be there. It thus fosters the “common sense” notion that black and Latino men are more prone to criminality than are white men. This kind of neoconservative racial project makes sense of and justifies a racist law enforcement and judicial system, which is to say, it links race to social structural outcomes, like rates of incarceration.

In contrast, liberal racial projects recognize the significance of race and foster activist-oriented state policies. Affirmative action policies operate as liberal racial projects, in this sense. For example, when the admissions policy of a college or university recognizes that race is significant in society, and that racism exists at individual, interactional, and institutional levels, the policy recognizes that applicants of color are likely to have experienced many forms of racism throughout their schooling.

Because of this, they may have been tracked away from honors or advanced placement classes, and they may have been disproportionately disciplined or sanctioned, as compared with their white peers, in ways that impact their academic records. This is why Black and Latino students are underrepresented at colleges and universities.

By factoring in race, racism, and their implications, affirmative action policies represent race as meaningful, and assert that racism shapes social structural outcomes like trends in educational achievement, and thus, race should be taken into account in the evaluation of college applications. A neoconservative racial project would deny the significance of race in the context of education, and in doing so, would suggest that students of color simply do not work as hard as their white peers, or that they are perhaps not as intelligent, and thus race should not be a consideration in the college admissions process.

The process of racial formation is constantly playing out as competing and contradictory racial projects such as these fight to be the dominant perspective on race in society. They compete to shape policy, impact social structure, and broker access to rights and resources.