Red Supergiant Stars are On the Way Out

The constellation Orion and the red supergiant Betelgeuse.
The constellation Orion holds the red supergiant star Betelgeuse (the red star in the upper left part of the constellation. It is due to explode as a supernova -- the end point of massive stars. Rogelio Bernal Andreo, CC By-SA.30

Ever wonder about how the largest stars in the galaxy age and die? It's a fascinating process that involves expansion of the star, changes in its nuclear furnace, and ultimately, the death of the star.

Red supergiant stars are the largest stars in the universe by volume — which means they they also have the greatest diameter. However, they are not necessarily— and almost never are — the largest stars by mass.

What are these stellar behemoths? It turns out, they're a late stage of a star's existence, and they don't always go away quietly. 

Creating a Red Supergiant

Stars go through specific steps throughout their lives. The changes they experience are called "stellar evolution". The first steps are formation and youthful star-hood. After they are born in a cloud of gas and dust, and then ignite hydrogen fusion in their cores, they are said to live "on the main sequence". During this period, they are in hydrostatic equilibrium. This means that the nuclear fusion in their cores (where they fuse hydrogen to create helium) provides enough energy and pressure to keep the weight of their outer layers from collapsing inwards.

How Solar-type Stars become Red Giants

For stars about the size of the Sun (or smaller), this period lasts for a few billion years. When they begin to run out of hydrogen fuel their cores begin to collapse.

That raises the core temperature quite a bit, which means there's more energy generated to escape the core. That process pushes the outer part of the star outward, forming a red giant. At that point, a star is said to have moved off the main sequence. 

The star chugs along with the core getting hotter and hotter, and eventually it begins to fuse helium into carbon and oxygen.

After a while, it shrinks down slightly and becomes a yellow giant.

When Stars More Massive than the Sun Evolve

A high-mass star (many times more massive than the Sun) goes through a similar, but slightly different process. It changes more drastically than its sun-like siblings and becomes a red supergiant. Because of its higher mass, when the core collapses after the hydrogen burning phase the rapidly increased temperature leads to the fusion of helium very quickly. The rate of helium fusion goes into overdrive, and that destabilizes the star. A huge amount of energy pushes the outer layers of the star outwards and it turns into a red supergiant. 

At this stage the gravitational force of the star is once again balanced by the immense outward radiation pressure caused by the intense helium fusion taking place in the core.

The process of evolving into a red supergiant does come at a cost. Such stars lose a considerable percentage of their mass out to space. As a result, while red supergiants are counted as the largest stars in the universe, they are not the most massive because they lose mass as they age.

Properties of Red Supergiants

Red supergiants look red because of their low surface temperature, usually only about 3,500 - 4,500 kelvin.

According to Wien's law, the color which a star radiates most strongly is directly related to its surface temperature. So, while their cores are extremely hot, the energy spreads out over the interior and surface of the star. A good example of a red supergiant is the star Betelgeuse, in the constellation Orion.

Most stars of this type are between 200 and 800 times the radius of our Sun. The very largest stars in our galaxy, all of them red supergiants, are about 1,500 times the size of our home star. Because of their immense size and mass, these stars require an incredible amount of energy to sustain them and prevent gravitational collapse. As a result they burn through their nuclear fuel very quickly and most live only a few tens of millions of years (depending on their actual mass).

Other Types of Supergiants

While red supergiants are the largest types of stars, there are other types of supergiant stars.

In fact, it is common for high mass stars, once their fusion process passes beyond hydrogen, that they oscillate back and forth between different forms of supergiants. Specifically becoming yellow supergiants on their way to becoming blue supergiants and back again.


The most massive of supergiant stars are known as hypergiants. However, these stars have a very loose definition, they are usually just red (or sometimes blue) supergiant stars that are the highest order: the most massive and the largest.

The Death of a Red Supergiant Star

A very high-mass star will oscillate between different supergiant stages as it fuses heavier and heavier elements in its core. Eventually, it will exhaust all its nuclear fuel that runs the star. When that happens, gravity wins. At that point the core is primarily iron (which takes more energy to fuse than the star has) and the core can no longer sustain outward radiation pressure, and it begins to collapse.

The subsequent cascade of events leads, eventually to a Type II supernova event. Left behind will be the core of the star, having been compressed due to the immense gravitational pressure into a neutron star; or in the cases of the most massive of stars, a black hole is created.

Edited by Carolyn Collins Petersen.