Table of Roman Equivalents of Greek Gods

Equivalent Roman and Greek Names for the Olympians and Minor Gods

5th Century BC Greek Sculpture of Poseidon, Athena, Apollo, and Artemis
Dating from the 5th century B.C., this relief sculpture depicts Poseidon, Athena, Apollo, and Artemis. David Lees/Getty Images

The Romans had many gods and personifications. When they came into contact with other people with their own collection of deities, the Romans often found what they considered equivalents to their gods. The correspondence between the Greek and Roman gods is closer than that of, say, the Romans and the Britons, because the Romans adopted many of the myths of the Greeks, but there are cases where Roman and Greek versions are only approximations.

With that proviso in mind, here are the names of the Greek gods and goddesses, paired with the Roman equivalent, where there is a difference. (Apollo is the same in both.)

If you would like to see this site's entire list of deities, see Gods/Goddesses Index, but if you would just like to have more information on a given major (and a few minor) Greek and Roman gods, click on the names below. For a more complete listing of Roman gods, see Roman Gods and Goddesses.

Major Gods of the Greek and Roman Pantheons

Greek NameRoman NameDescription Aphrodite VenusThe famous, beautiful love goddess, the one awarded the apple of Discord that was instrumental in the start of the Trojan War and for the Romans, the mother of the Trojan hero Aeneas Apollo Brother of Artemis/Diana, shared by Romans and Greeks alike Ares MarsThe god of war for both Romans and Greeks, but so destructive he was not much loved by the Greeks, even though Aphrodite loved him.
On the other hand, he was admired by the Romans, where he was associated with fertility as well as the military, and a very important deity.Artemis DianaThe sister of Apollo, she was a hunting goddess. Like her brother, she is often combined with the deity in charge of a celestial body. In her case, the moon; in her brother's, the sun.
Although a virgin goddess, she assisted in childbirth. Although she hunted, she could also be the animals' protector. In general, she is full of contradictions AthenaMinervaShe was a virgin goddess of wisdom and crafts, associated with warfare as her wisdom led to strategic planning. Athena was the patron goddess of Athens. She helped many of the great heroes. DemeterCeresA fertility and mother goddess associated with cultivation of grain. Demeter is associated with an important religious cult, the Eleusinian mysteries. She is also the law-bringerHades PlutoWhile he was the king of the Underworld, he was not the god of death. That was left to Thanatos. He is married to Demeter's daughter, whom he abducted. Pluto is the conventional Roman name and you might use it for a trivia question, but really Pluto, a god of wealth, is the equivalent of a Greek god of wealth called DisHephaistos VulcanThe Roman version of this god's name was lent to a geological phenomenon and he required frequent pacification. He is a fire and blacksmith god for both. Stories about Hephaestus show him as the lame, cuckolded husband of Aphrodite. Hera JunoA marriage goddess and the wife of the king of the gods, Zeus HermesMercuryA many-talented messenger of the gods and sometimes a trickster god and god of commerce.Hestia VestaIt was important to keep the hearth fires burning and the hearth was the domain of this stay-at-home goddess. Her Roman virgin priestesses, the Vestals, were vital to the fortunes of Rome.  KronosSaturn

A very ancient god, the father of many of the others. Cronus or Kronus is known for having swallowed his children, until his youngest child, Zeus, forced him to regurgitate. The Roman version is far more benign. The Saturnalia festival celebrates his pleasant rule. This god is sometimes conflated with Chronos (time)

PersephoneProserpinaThe daughter of Demeter, the wife of Hades, and another goddess important in religious mystery cults.PoseidonNeptuneThe sea and fresh water springs god, brother of Zeus and Hades. He is also associated with horses. Zeus JupiterSky and thunder god, the head honcho and one of the most promiscuous of the gods.

 

Minor Gods of the Greeks and Romans

GreekRomanDescriptionErinyesFuriaeThe Furies were three sisters who at the behest of the gods, sought vengeance for wrongsErisDiscordiaThe goddess of discord, who caused trouble, especially if you were foolish enough to ignore her Eros CupidThe god of love and desireMoiraeParcaeThe goddesses of fateCharitesGratiaeThe goddesses of charm and beauty HeliosSolThe sun, titan and great-uncle or cousin of Apollo and ArtemisHoraiHoraeThe goddesses of the seasons PanFaunusPan was the goat-footed shepherd, the bringer of music and the god of pastures and woods.SeleneLunaThe moon, titan and great-aunt or cousin of Apollo and ArtemisTyche FortunaThe goddess of chance and good fortune

For More Information

The great Greek epics, Hesiod's Theogony and Homer's Iliad and Odyssey, provide much of the basic information on the Greek gods and goddesses.

The playwrights add to this and give more substance to the myths alluded to in the epics and other Greek poetry. Greek pottery gives us visual clues about the myths and their popularity. From the modern world, Timothy Gantz' Early Greek Myths looks at literature and art to explain the early myths and their variants.

The ancient Roman writers Vergil, in his epic Aeneid, and Ovid, in his Metamorphoses and Fasti, weave the Greek myths into the Roman world. There are other ancient writers, of course, but this is just a brief look at sources.

Online Resources