Glossary of Roman Terms

How Many Do You Know?

Roman Forum
Roman Forum. Clipart.com

The Ancient Roman Republic lasted from 509 BCE to 27 BCE, and was followed by the Ancient Roman Empire which existed from 27 BCE to 669 CE. While already boasting a lengthy rule, the Romans influence continued to shape all aspects of society for centuries after.

Roman civilization made its mark on Elizabethan literature by inspiring Shakespeare's seminal play, Julius Caesar. The iconic Colosseum in Rome is a staple case study in architecture studies and influenced many similar structures, especially sports stadiums.

The Roman Republic, and even the Roman Empire with its Senate legislature, is often referred to as the building blocks of modern democracy. And its ruling over diverse lands and its trade with Asia via the Silk Road inevitably established cross-cultural exchanges that continue to today.

There is so much to learn from and about the Romans, so we put together an A to Z glossary of Roman terms to know. These terms cover a variety of topics, ranging from names of battles to significant architecture, from geographical features to an explanation of cultural rituals. Hopefully, this extensive list will be intriguing for any history buff or Ancient Rome enthusiast. Be sure to click on each link to get to the definition. 

Roman Terms #s

7 Hills of Rome
7 Kings of Rome
12 Tables

Roman Terms A to C 

Ab Urbe Condita
Abundantia
Actium
A.D.
Agonalia
Alba Longa
Annals
Antonine Wall
Appian Way
A.U.C.
Augustus
Aventine
Bacchanalia
Battle of Carrhae
Battle of Milvian Bridge
Battle of Pharsalus
B.C.


Boii
Caligula 
Battle of Carrhae
Catapult
Claudius
Clipeus
Cloaca Maxima
Cohort
Colosseum
Comitia Centuriata
Confarreatio
Constantine
Constitutio Antoniniana (Edict of Caracalla)
Consul
Consules Suffecti
Cornucopia
Curia
Curule Aedile
Cursus Honorum
Curtius (Lacus Curtius)

Roman Terms D to F

Donativum
Eburones
Edict of Caracalla
Excubito
Fabula Togata
Fescenine Verse
Fides
Flamen
Foedus
Forum

Roman Terms G to I

Gallia /Gaul
Garum (Roman Fish Sauce)
Gergovia Battle
Hadrian's Wall
Hedonism
Hispania
Historia Augusta
Insula
Interregnum

Roman Terms J to L

Julian Calendar
Julian the Apostate
Julius Caesar
Justinian
Lacus Curtius
Latin League
Lex Cornelia
Ludi
Ludi Apollinares
Ludi Florales

Roman Terms M to O

Macedonian Wars
Maia
Matrimonium
Monk
Morbihan Gulf Battle
Mt. Vesuvius
Nero 
Nomenclator
Nicene Creed
Optimates

Roman Terms P to R

Palatine
Pater Familias
Patria Potestas
Pax Romana
Persecutions
Pervigilium
Pharsalus
Pilum
Plebiscitum
Plebeians
Pontifex Maximus
Pontius Pilate
Postridie Nonas
Praefectures
Praenestine Cista
Praetextata
Praetors
Prandium
Priapus
Principate
Regia
Regionaries
Rex Sacrificulus 
Rubicon

Roman Terms S to U

Salutatio
Scaevola
Scalae Gemoniae
Scipionic Circle
Seleucids
Senators
Sibyl
Sinister
Social War
Stipendium
Suffect Consuls
Tarpeian Rock
Templum
Tetrarchy
Toga
Tria Nomina
Tribune
Triumvirate

Roman Terms V to X

Velabrum
Vercingetorix
Vesuvius