Glossary of Roman Terms: Politics, Law, Wars, and Lifestyles

Roman Forum
Roman Forum. Clipart.com

The Ancient Roman Republic lasted from 509 BCE to 27 BCE, and was followed by the Ancient Roman Empire which existed from 27 BCE to 669 CE. While already boasting a lengthy rule, the Romans influence continued to shape all aspects of society for centuries after.

Roman civilization made its mark on Elizabethan literature by inspiring Shakespeare's seminal play, Julius Caesar. The iconic Colosseum in Rome is a staple case study in architecture studies and influenced many similar structures, especially sports stadiums.

The Roman Republic, and even the Roman Empire with its Senate legislature, is often referred to as the building blocks of modern democracy. And its ruling over diverse lands and its trade with Asia via the Silk Road inevitably established cross-cultural exchanges that continue to today.

These terms cover a variety of topics, ranging from names of battles to significant architecture, from geographical features to an explanation of cultural rituals. Hopefully, this extensive list will be intriguing for any history buff or Ancient Rome enthusiast. 

Battles  and Warfare

Rome was imperialism personified, and the Romans kept blow by blow records of many of the important battles that sealed that definition. Many Roman battles and battle plans are still cited as ideals by recent military tacticians and teachers in military academies.

Politics and Law

Politics played a vital role in Roman society. The passion plays in the Senate and the struggles for power among generals, kings, and emperors provide us a great deal of historical precedent for our society today.

Architecture 

Rome built some of the finest civic architecture, both as public displays but also as functional works, aqueducts and other structures still standing today. 

Lifestyle 

What do you know of these terms related to social mores and traditions, music, and foods of Roman society?

Geography

At its height, the Roman Empire stretched over much of Europe; do you know these points of geographic interest? 

Religion 

Roman religion changed over the centuries, and it includes Roman gods and goddesses, but also the influence of religion, and religious specialists. 

People

Do you know who these important persons were to the history of the Roman Empire?