S Orbital

Atomic Structure

The s orbital is spherical in shape.
The s orbital is spherical in shape. De Agostini Picture Library, Getty Images

At any given moment, an electron can be found at any distance from the nucleus and in any direction according to the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. The s orbital is a spherically-shaped region describing where an electron can be found, within a certain degree of probability. The shape of the orbital depends on the quantum numbers associated with an energy state. All s orbitals have l = m = 0, but the value of n can vary.