Salem Witch Trials Timeline

Salem Witch Trial - Trial of George Jacobs
Salem Witch Trial - Trial of George Jacobs.

 Douglas Grundy / Getty Images

The events of 1692 in Salem Village, resulting in 185 accused of witchcraft, 156 formally charged, 47 confessions and 19 executed by hanging, remain one of the most studied phenomena in colonial American history. Far more women than men were among the accused, convicted and executed. Before 1692, the British colonists had only executed 12 people in all of New England for witchcraft.

This timeline shows the major events leading up to, during and following the Salem witch accusations and trials. If you want to skip to the first strange behavior of the girls involved, start with January 1692. If you want to skip to the first accusations of witches, start with February 1692. The first examination by judges began in March 1692, the first actual trials were in May 1692 and the first execution was in June 1692. The Before 1692 section below gives a rich introduction to the environment which may have fostered the accusations and executions.

The chronology includes a representative sampling of the events, and is not meant to be complete or include every detail. Note that some dates are given differently in different sources and that names are given differently (even in contemporary sources, a time when the spelling of names was often inconsistent).

​Before 1692: Events Leading Up to the Trials

1627: Guide to the Grand-Jury Men published by Rev. Richard Bernard in England, which included guidance for prosecuting witches. The text was used by the judges in Salem.

1628: Salem was established with the arrival of John Endecott and about 100 others.

1636: Salem banished clergyman Roger Williams, who went on to found the colony of Rhode Island.

1638: A small group settled about 5 miles outside of Salem town, in what became Salem Village.

1641: England established a capital penalty for witchcraft.

June 15, 1648: First execution for witchcraft known in New England: Margaret Jones of Charlestown in Massachusetts Bay Colony, a herbalist, midwife, and self-described physician

1656: Thomas Ady published A Candle in the Dark, critical of witchcraft prosecutions. He published A Perfect Discovery of Witches in 1661 and The Doctrine of Devils in 1676. George Burroughs used one or more of these in his trial in 1692, attempting to refute the charges against him.

April 1661: Charles II regained the throne of England and ended the Puritan Commonwealth.

1662: Richard Mather drafted a proposal, adopted by the Massachusetts Puritan churches, called the Half-Way Covenant, distinguishing between full covenanted membership in the church and "half-way" membership for their children until they were able to become full members.

1668: Joseph Glanvill published "Against Modern Sadducism" which argued that those who did not believe in witches, apparitions, spirits, and demons thereby denied the existence of God and angels, and were heretics.

1669: Susannah Martin was accused of witchcraft in Salisbury, Massachusetts. She was convicted, but a higher court dismissed the charges. Ann Holland Bassett Burt, a Quaker and the grandmother of Elizabeth Proctor, charged with witchcraft.

October 8, 1672: Salem Village separated from Salem Town, and was authorized by a General Court order to tax for public improvements, hire a minister and build a meetinghouse. Salem Village remained more focused on agriculture and Salem Town centered on a more mercantile identity.

Spring 1673: Salem Village meetinghouse raised.

1673 - 1679: James Bayley served as minister of the Salem Village church. Controversy over whether to ordain Bayley, over failure to pay and even for slander made their way into lawsuits. Because Salem Village was not yet fully a town or church, Salem Town had a say on the future of the minister.

1679: Simon Bradstreet became governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony. Bridget Bishop of Salem Village was accused of witchcraft, but the Rev. John Hale testified for her and the charges were dropped.

1680: In Newbury, Elizabeth Morse was accused of witchcraft. She was convicted and sentenced to death but was reprieved.

May 12, 1680: the Puritan churches assembled at Boston consented to gathering the Salem Village church, a decision drawn on in 1689 when the Salem Village church was formally gathered.

1680 - 1683: Rev. George Burroughs, a 1670 Harvard graduate, served as minister of the Salem Village church. His wife died in 1681, and he remarried. As with his predecessor, the church would not ordain him, and he left in a bitter salary fight, at one point being arrested for debt. John Hathorne served on the church committee to find Burroughs' replacement.

October 23, 1684: The Massachusetts Bay Colony charter was annulled and self-government ended. Sir Edmund Andros was appointed the governor of the newly-defined Dominion of New England; he was pro-Anglican and unpopular in Massachusetts.

1684: Rev. Deodat Lawson became the minister in Salem Village.

1685: News of the end of Massachusetts self-government reached Boston.

1685: Cotton Mather was ordained. He was the son of Boston's North Church minister Increase Mather and joined his father there.

1687: Bridget Bishop of Salem Village was accused for the second time of witchcraft and acquitted.

1688: Ann Glover, an Irish-born Gaelic-speaking Roman Catholic housekeeper for the Goodwin family in Boston, was accused of witchcraft by the Goodwins' daughter Martha. Martha and several siblings had exhibited strange behavior: fits, flapping of hands, animal-like movements and sounds, and strange contortions. Glover was tried and convicted of witchcraft, with language being something of a barrier in the trial. "Goody Glover" was hanged on November 16, 1688 for witchcraft. After the trial, Martha Goodwin lived at the home of Cotton Mather, who soon wrote about the case. (In 1988, Boston City Council proclaimed November 16 Goody Glover Day.)

1688: France and England began the Nine Years' War (1688-1697). When this war manifested as outbreaks in America, it was called King William's War, the first of a series of French and Indian Wars. Because there had been another conflict between the colonists and the Indians earlier, not involving the French and usually called King Philip's War, these outbreaks of the Nine Years' War in America sometimes were called the Second Indian War.

1687 - 1688: Rev. Deodat Lawson left as Salem Village's minister. While he, too, was not fully paid and was not ordained by Salem Town church, he left with some but less controversy than that of his predecessors. His wife and daughter died just before he left the post. He became a minister in Boston.

June 1688: Rev. Samuel Parris arrived in Salem Village as a candidate for the position of Salem Village minister. He would be their first fully ordained minister.

1688: King James II, remarried to a Catholic, had a son and new heir who would replace James' older and Protestant daughters in the succession. William of Orange, married to the elder daughter Mary, invaded England and removed James from the throne.

1689 - 1697: Indian raids in New England were launched at the instigation of New France. French soldiers sometimes led the raids.

1689: Increase Mather and Sir William Phips petitioned William and Mary, new rulers of England after James II was deposed in 1688, to restore the charter of the Massachusetts colony

1689: Former Governor Simon Bradstreet, removed when England revoked the charter for Massachusetts and appointed a governor for the Dominion of New England, may have helped organize a mob in Boston that led to Andros' surrender and jailing. The English recalled the New England governor and reappointed Bradstreet as Massachusetts governor, but without a valid charter, he had no real authority to govern.

1689: Memorable Providences, Relating to Witchcrafts and Possessions by Rev. Cotton Mather was published, describing the Boston case from the previous year involving "Goody Glover" and Martha Goodwin.

1689: Benjamin Holton died in Salem Village, and the doctor attending could not identify a cause of death. This death was later brought out as evidence against Rebecca Nurse in 1692.

April 1689: Rev. Parris was formally called as the minister at Salem Village.

October 1689: Salem Village church granted Rev. Parris a full deed to the parsonage, apparently in violation of the congregation's own rules.

November 19, 1689: The church covenant was signed, including Rev. Parris, 27 full members.

November 19, 1689: Rev. Samuel Parris was ordained at Salem Village church, with Nicholas Noyes, minister at Salem Town church, presiding.

February 1690: The French in Canada sent a war party mainly made up of Abenaki that killed 60 at Schenectady, New York, and took at least 80 captives.

March 1690: Another war party killed 30 in New Hampshire and captured 44.

April 1690: Sir William Phips led an expedition against Port Royal and, after two failed attempts, Port Royal surrendered. Captives were traded for hostages taken by the French in previous battles. In another battle, the French took Fort Loyal in Falmouth, Maine, and killed most of the residents, burning the town. Some of those fleeing went to Salem. Mercy Lewis, orphaned in one of the attacks on Falmouth, first worked for George Burroughs in Maine, and then joined the Putmans in Salem Village. One theory is that she saw her parents killed.

April 27, 1690: Giles Corey, twice a widower, and unmarried since his wife Mary died in 1684, married his third wife. Martha Corey already had a son named Thomas.

June 1691: Ann Putnam Sr. joined the Salem Village church.

June 9, 1691: Indians attacked in several places in New York.

1691: William and Mary replaced the Massachusetts Bay Colony charter with a new one establishing the Province of Massachusetts Bay. They appointed Sir William Phips, who had come to England to gather help against Canada, as royal governor. Simon Bradstreet refused a seat on the governor's council and retired to his home in Salem.

October 8, 1691: Rev. Samuel Parris asked the church to provide more firewood for his house, stating that the only wood he had was donated by Mr. Corwin.

October 16, 1691: In England, a new charter for the Province of Massachusetts Bay was approved.

Also on October 16, 1691: At a Salem Village town meeting, members of one faction in a growing church conflict promised to stop paying the church's minister, Rev. Samuel Parris. Those supporting him generally wanted more separation from Salem Town; those opposing him generally wanted closer association with Salem Town; there were other issues that tended to polarize around the same lines. Parris began to preach about a Satanic conspiracy in town against him and the church.

January 1692: Beginnings

Note that in Old Style dates, January through March of 1692 (New Style) were listed as part of 1691.

January 8: Representatives of Salem Village petitioned Salem Town to recognize the village's independence, or at least to tax Salem Village residents only for Salem Village expenses.

January 15-19: In Salem Village, Elizabeth (Betty) Parris and Abigail Williams, ages 9 and 12, both living in the home of Rev. Samuel Parris, Betty's father, began exhibiting strange behavior, making strange noises, and complaining of headaches. Tituba, one of the family's Caribbean slaves, experienced images of the devil and swarms of witches, according to her later testimony.

Betty and Abigail began exhibiting strange fits and jerky movements, much like the children in the Goodwin household in Boston in 1688 (an incident they likely had heard about; a copy of Memorable Providences, Relating to Witchcrafts and Possessions by Rev. Cotton Mather was in Rev. Parris' library).

January 20: St. Agnes Eve was a traditional English fortune-telling time.

January 25, 1692: In York, Maine, then part of the Province of Massachusetts, Abenaki sponsored by the French invaded and killed about 50-100 English colonists (sources disagree on the number), took 70-100 hostage, killed livestock and burned the settlement.

January 26: word of the appointment of Sir William Phips as royal governor of Massachusetts reached Boston.

February 1692: First Accusations and Arrests

Note that in Old Style dates, January through March of 1692 (New Style) were listed as part of 1691.

February 7: Boston's North Church contributed to the ransom of captives from the late January attack on York, Maine.

February 8: A copy of the new provincial charter for Massachusetts arrived in Boston. Maine was still part of Massachusetts, to the relief of many. Religious liberty was granted to all but Roman Catholics, which would not please those who opposed radical groups like the Quakers. Some were not pleased that it was a new charter rather than a restoration of the old one.

February: Captain John Alden Jr. visited Quebec to ransom British prisoners taken when the Abenaki attacked York.

February 16: William Griggs, a physician, bought a home in Salem Village. His children had already left home, but his niece Elizabeth Hubbard lived with Griggs and his wife.

About February 24: After traditional remedies and prayer failed in the Parris household to cure the girls of their strange afflictions, a doctor, likely Dr. William Griggs, diagnosed the "Evil Hand" as the cause.

February 25: Mary Sibley, a neighbor of the Parris family, advised John Indian, a Caribbean slave of the Parris family, to make a witch's cake to discover the names of the witches, perhaps with the help of his wife, another Caribbean slave of the Parris family. Instead of relieving the girls, their torments increased. Ann Putnam Jr. and Elizabeth Hubbard, who lived about a mile either direction from the Parris household began showing the "afflictions." Because Elizabeth Hubbard was 17 and of legal age to testify under oath and to file legal complaints, her testimony was especially important. She testified 32 times in the trials that followed.

February 26: Betty and Abigail began naming Tituba for their behavior, which increased in intensity. Several neighbors and ministers, likely including Rev. John Hale of Beverley and Rev. Nicholas Noyes of Salem, were asked to observe their behavior. They questioned Tituba.

February 27: Ann Putnam Jr. and Elizabeth Hubbard experienced torments and blamed Sarah Good, a local homeless mother and beggar, and Sarah Osborne, who was involved with conflicts around inheriting property and also had married, to a local scandal, an indentured servant. None of these three were likely to have many local defenders against such accusations.

February 29: Based on the accusations of Betty Parris and Abigail Williams, arrest warrants were issued in Salem Town for the first three accused witches: Tituba, Sarah Good and Sarah Osborne, based on complaints of Thomas Putnam, Ann Putnam Jr.'s father, and several others, before local magistrates Jonathan Corwin and John Hathorne. They were to be taken for questioning the next day at Nathaniel Ingersoll's tavern.

March 1692: Examinations Begin

Note that in Old Style dates, January through March of 1692 (New Style) were listed as part of 1691.

March 1: Tituba, Sarah Osborne and Sarah Good were examined by local magistrates John Hathorne and Jonathan Corwin. Ezekiel Cheever was appointed to take notes on the proceedings. Hannah Ingersoll, whose husband's tavern was the site of the examination, found that the three had no witch marks on them. William Good told her about a mole on his wife's back. Tituba confessed and named the other two as witches, adding rich details to her stories of possession, spectral travel and meeting with the devil. Sarah Osborne protested her own innocence; Sarah Good said that Tituba and Osborne were witches but that she was herself innocent. Sarah Good was sent to Ipswich to be confined with a local constable who was also a relative. She escaped briefly and returned voluntarily; this absence seemed especially suspicious when Elizabeth Hubbard reported that Sarah Good's specter had visited her and tormented her that evening.

March 2: Sarah Good was jailed at the Ipswich jail. Sarah Osborne and Tituba were questioned further. Tituba added more details to her confession, and Sarah Osborne maintained her innocence.

March 3: Sarah Good had apparently now been moved to Salem jail with the other two women. The questioning of all three by Corwin and Hathorne continued.

March: Philip English, a wealthy Salem merchant and businessman of French background, was appointed a selectman in Salem.

March 6: Ann Putnam Jr. mentioned Elizabeth Proctor's name, blaming her for an affliction. 

March 7: Increase Mather and Governor Phips left England to return to Massachusetts.

March: Mary Warren, a servant in the home of Elizabeth and John Proctor, began also having fits like the other girls were having. She told John Proctor she had seen the specter of Giles Corey, a local and prosperous farmer, but he dismissed her report.

March 11: Ann Putnam Jr. began to demonstrate behavior like that of Betty Parris and Abigail Williams. Town records note that Mary Sibley had been suspended from communion with Salem Village Church for giving John Indian instructions to make a witch's cake. She was restored to full covenanted membership when she confessed that she had innocent purposes in doing this folk ritual.

March 12: Martha Corey, a respected community and church member, was accused by Ann Putnam Jr. of witchcraft.

March 19: Rebecca Nurse, 71 years old, also a respected church member and part of the community, was accused of witchcraft by Abigail Williams. Rev. Deodat Lawson visited several members of the community and witnessed Abigail Williams acting strangely and claiming Rebecca Nurse was trying to force her to sign the devil's book.

March 20: Abigail Williams interrupted Rev. Lawson, delivering the service at the Salem Village meetinghouse. She claimed to see Martha Corey's spirit separate from her body.

March 21: Martha Corey was arrested and examined by Jonathan Corwin and John Hathorne.

March 22: A local delegation visited Rebecca Nurse at home.

March 23: An arrest warrant was issued for Rebecca Nurse. Samuel Brabrook, a marshall, was sent to arrest a daughter of Sarah Good, Dorcas Good, a four or five-year-old girl, on a charge of witchcraft. He arrested her the next day. (Dorcas is identified incorrectly in some records as Dorothy.)

Sometime after the accusations were leveled against Rebecca Nurse, John Proctor, whose daughter was married to an in-law of Rebecca Nurse's son, denounced the afflicted girls publicly.

March 24: Jonathan Corwin and John Hathorne examined Rebecca Nurse on the charges of witchcraft against her. She maintained her innocence.

March 24, 25 and 26: Dorcas Good was examined by Jonathan Corwin and John Hathorne. What she answered was interpreted as a confession that implicated her mother, Sarah Good. On March 26, Deodat Lawson and John Higginson were present for the questioning.

March 26: Mercy Lewis accused Elizabeth Proctor of afflicting her through her specter.

March 27: Easter Sunday, which was not a special Sunday in the Puritan churches, saw Rev. Samuel Parris preaching on "dreadful witchcraft broke out here." He emphasized that the devil could not take the form of anyone innocent. Tituba, Sarah Osborne, Sarah Good, Rebecca Nurse, and Martha Corey were in prison. During the sermon, Sarah Cloyce, Rebecca's sister, left the meetinghouse and slammed the door.

March 29: Abigail Williams and Mercy Lewis accused Elizabeth Proctor's specter of afflicting them, and Abigail claimed to see John Proctor's specter as well.

March 30 In Ipswich, Rachel Clenton (or Clinton), accused by her neighbors of witchcraft, was examined by local magistrates there. None of the girls involved in the Salem Village accusations were involved in Rachel Clenton's case.

April 1692: Widening the Circle of Suspicion

April: More than 50 men in Ipswich, Topsfield and Salem Village signed petitions declaring that they did not believe spectral evidence about John Proctor and Elizabeth Proctor nor did they believe they could be witches.

April 3: Rev. Samuel Parris read to his congregation a prayer request for thanks from Mary Warren, servant to John and Elizabeth Proctor. Mary expressed gratitude that her fits had stopped. Parris questioned her after the service.

April 3: Sarah Cloyce came to the defense of her sister, Rebecca Nurse. The result was that Sarah was accused of witchcraft.

April 4: Complaints were filed against Elizabeth Proctor and Sarah Cloyce, and an arrest warrant issued to have them in custody by April 8. The warrant also ordered Mary Warren and Elizabeth Hubbard to appear to give evidence.

April 10: Another Sunday meeting at Salem Village saw interruptions, identified as caused by the specter of Sarah Cloyce.

April 11: Elizabeth Proctor and Sarah Cloyce were examined by Jonathan Corwin and John Hathorne. Also present were Deputy Governor Thomas Danforth, assistants Isaac Addington, Samuel Appleton, James Russell, and Samuel Sewall. Salem minister Nicholas Noyes gave the prayer and Salem Village minister Rev. Samuel Parris took notes for the day. John Proctor, Elizabeth's husband, objected to the accusations against Elizabeth—and was himself then accused of witchcraft by Mary Warren, their servant, who had also accused Elizabeth Proctor. John Proctor was arrested and jailed. A few days later, Mary Warren admitted lying about the accusation, saying the other girls were also lying. On April 19, she recanted her recantation.

April 14: Mercy Lewis claimed that Giles Corey had appeared to her and forced her to sign the devil's book. Mary English was visited at midnight by Sheriff Corwin with an arrest warrant and told him to come back and arrest her in the morning, which he did.

April 16: New accusations were made against Bridget Bishop and Mary Warren, who had made accusations but then recanted them.

April 18: Bridget Bishop, Abigail Hobbs, Mary Warren, and Giles Corey were arrested on charges of witchcraft. They were taken to Ingersoll's tavern.

April 19: Jonathan Corwin and John Hathorne examined Deliverance Hobbs, Abigail Hobbs, Bridget Bishop, Giles Corey, and Mary Warren. Rev. Parris and Ezekiel Cheever took the notes. Abigail Hobbs testified that Giles Corey, husband of accused Martha Corey, was a witch. Giles Corey maintained his innocence. Mary Warren recanted her recantation in the case of the Proctors. Deliverance Hobbs confessed to witchcraft.

April 21: A warrant was issued for the arrest of Sarah Wildes, William Hobbs, Deliverance Hobbs, Nehemiah Abbott Jr., Mary Easty, Edward Bishop, Jr., Sarah Bishop (wife of Edward Bishop and stepdaughter of Mary Wildes), Mary Black, and Mary English, based on accusations of Ann Putnam Jr., Mercy Lewis and Mary Walcott.

April 22: The newly-arrested Mary Easty, Nehemiah Abbott Jr., William Hobbs, Deliverance Hobbs, Edward Bishop Jr., Sarah Bishop, Mary Black, Sarah Wildes, and Mary English were examined by Jonathan Corwin and John Hathorne. Mary Easty had been accused following her defense of her sister, the accused Rebecca Nurse. (examination records for this day are lost, as they are for a few other days, so we don't know what some of the charges were.)

April 24: Susanna Sheldon accused Philip English of tormenting her through witchcraft. William Beale, who had sparred with English in 1690 in a lawsuit about land claims, also accused English of having something to do with the deaths of Beale's two sons.

April 30: Arrest warrants were issued for Dorcas Hoar, Lydia Dustin, George Burroughs, Susannah Martin, Sarah Morell, and Philip English. English was not found until late May, at which time he and his wife were jailed in Boston. George Burroughs, a predecessor of Samuel Parris as Salem Village minister, was thought by some in town to be at the center of the outbreak of witchcraft.

May 1692: Special Court Judges Appointed

May 2: Jonathan Corwin and John Hathorne examined Sarah Morrell, Lydia Dustin, Susannah Martin, and Dorcas Hoar. Philip English was reported as missing.

May 3: Sarah Morrell, Susannah Martin, Lydia Dustin, and Dorcas Hoar were taken to Boston's jail.

May 4: George Burroughs was arrested in Wells, Maine (Maine was at the time a northern part of the province of Massachusetts) on charges of witchcraft after being accused on April 30. Burroughs had been serving as the minister in Wells for nine years.

May 7: George Burroughs was returned to Salem and was jailed.

May 9: George Burroughs and Sarah Churchill were examined by Jonathan Corwin and John Hathorne. Burroughs was moved to Boston's jail.

May 10: Sarah Osborne died in jail. Jonathan Corwin and John Hathorne examined Margaret Jacobs and George Jacobs Sr., granddaughter, and grandfather. Margaret implicated her grandfather and George Burroughs in witchcraft. A warrant was issued for the arrest of John Willard, who had himself been a constable in Salem Village bringing in the accused. He attempted to flee, but was found and arrested later.

May 12: Ann Pudeator and Alice Parker were arrested. Abigail Hobbs and Mary Warren were questioned. John Hale and John Higginson observed part of the day's proceedings. Mary English was sent to Boston to be jailed there.

May 14: Sir William Phips arrived in Massachusetts to take up his position as royal governor, accompanied by Increase Mather. The charter they brought also restored self-government in Massachusetts and named William Stoughton as lieutenant governor. The Salem Village witchcraft accusations, including the large and growing number of people overflowing the jails and awaiting trial, drew Phips' attention quickly.

May 16: Governor Phips was given the oath of office.

May 18: John Willard was examined. Mary Easty was set free; existing records do not show why. Dr. Roger Toothaker was arrested, accused of witchcraft by Elizabeth Hubbard, Ann Putnam Jr., and Mary Wolcott.

May 20: Mary Easty, set free only two days before, was accused of afflicting Mercy Lewis; Mary Easty was charged again and returned to jail.

May 21: Sarah Proctor, daughter of Elizabeth Proctor and John Proctor, and Sarah Bassett, Elizabeth Proctor's sister-in-law, were accused of afflicting four of the girls, and they were arrested.

May 23: Benjamin Proctor, son of John Proctor and stepson of Elizabeth Proctor, was accused and jailed. Boston jail ordered additional shackles for prisoners, using money loaned by Samuel Sewall.

May 25: Martha Corey, Rebecca Nurse, Dorcas Good, Sarah Cloyce and John, and Elizabeth Proctor were ordered transferred to Boston's jail.

May 27: Seven judges were appointed to a Court of Oyer and Terminer by Governor Phips: Bartholomew Gedney, John Hathorne, Nathaniel Saltonstall, William Sergeant, Samuel Sewall, Waitstill Winthrop, and Lieutenant Governor William Stoughton. Stoughton was appointed to head the special court.

May 28: Wilmott Redd was arrested, accused of "sundry acts of witchcraft" on Mary Wolcott and Mercy Lewis. Martha Carrier, Thomas Farrar, Elizabeth Hart, Elizabeth Jackson, Mary Toothaker, Margaret Toothaker (9 years old) and John Willard were also arrested. An accusation was also made against John Alden Jr. William Proctor, son of Elizabeth Proctor and John Proctor, was accused and arrested.

May 30: Elizabeth Fosdick and Elizabeth Paine were accused of witchcraft against Mercy Lewis and Mary Warren.

May 31: John Alden, Martha Carrier, Elizabeth How, Wilmott Redd, and Philip English were examined by Bartholomew Gedney, Jonathan Corwin, and John Hathorne. Cotton Mather wrote a letter to John Richards, a judge, with advice on how the court should proceed. Mather warned that the court should not rely on spectral evidence. Philip English was sent to jail in Boston to join his wife there; they were treated quite well due to their many connections. John Alden was also sent to Boston jail.

June 1692: First Executions

June: Governor Phips appointed Lt. Gov. Stoughton as chief justice of the Massachusetts court, in addition to his position on the special court of Oyer and Terminer.

June 2: The Court of Oyer and Terminer convened in its first session. Elizabeth Fosdick and Elizabeth Paine were arrested. Elizabeth Paine turned herself in on June 3. Elizabeth Proctor and several other accused women were subjected to a body search by a male doctor and some women, looking for "witch's marks" such as moles. No such signs were reported found.

June 3: A grand jury indicted John Willard and Rebecca Nurse for witchcraft. Abigail Williams testified on this day for the last time; after that, she disappears from all records.

June 6: Ann Dolliver was arrested and examined for witchcraft by Gedney, Hathorne, and Corwin.

June 8: Bridget Bishop was tried, convicted and sentenced to death. She had a previous record of accusations of witchcraft. Eighteen-year-old Elizabeth Booth showed signs of being afflicted by witchcraft.

Around June 8: A Massachusetts law which had been made obsolete by another law against hangings was resurrected and passed anew, allowing executions for witchcraft.

Around June 8: Nathaniel Saltonstall resigned from the Court of Oyer and Terminer, possibly because the court pronounced a death sentence on Bridget Bishop.

June 10: Bridget Bishop was executed by hanging, the first to be executed in the Salem witch trials.

June 15: Cotton Mather wrote to the Court of Oyer and Terminer. He urged that they not rely on spectral evidence alone. He also recommended that they make the prosecution "speedy and vigorous."

June 16: Roger Toothaker died in prison. His death was found by a coroner's jury to be of natural causes.

June 29-30: Sarah Good, Elizabeth How, Susannah Martin, and Sarah Wildes were tried for witchcraft. They were all found guilty and condemned to hanging. Rebecca Nurse was also tried, and the jury found her not guilty. The accusers and spectators protested loudly when that decision was announced. The court asked them to reconsider the verdict, and they found her guilty, discovering on reviewing the evidence that she had failed to answer one question put to her (perhaps because she was nearly deaf). She, too, was condemned to hang. Gov. Phips issued a reprieve but this was also met with protests and was rescinded.

June 30: Testimony was heard against Elizabeth Proctor and John Proctor. 

July 1692: More Arrests and Executions

July 1: Margaret Hawkes and her slave from Barbados, Candy, were accused; Candy testified that her mistress had made her a witch.

July 2: Ann Pudeator was examined in court.

July 3: The Salem Town church excommunicated Rebecca Nurse.

July 16, 18 and 21: Anne Foster was examined; she confessed on each of the three days of examination and implicated Martha Carrier as a witch.

July 19: Sarah Good, Elizabeth How, Susannah Martin, Rebecca Nurse, and Sarah Wildes, convicted in June, were executed by hanging. Sarah Good cursed the presiding clergyman, Nicholas Noyes, from the gallows, saying "if you take away my life God will give you blood to drink." (Years later, Noyes died unexpectedly, hemorrhaging from the mouth.)

Mary Lacey Sr. and Mary Lacey Jr. were accused of witchcraft. 

July 21: Mary Lacey Jr. was arrested. Mary Lacey Jr., Anne Foster, Richard Carrier, and Andrew Carrier were examined by John Hathorne, Jonathan Corwin, and John Higginson. Mary Lacey Jr. (15) confessed and accused her mother of witchcraft. Mary Lacey, Sr., was examined by Gedney, Hathorne, and Corwin.

July 23: John Proctor wrote a letter from jail to the ministers of Boston, asking them to stop the trials, have the venue changed to Boston, or have new judges appointed, due to the way that the trials were being conducted.

July 30: Mary Toothaker examined by John Higginson, John Hathorne, and Jonathan Corwin. Hannah Bromage examined by Gedney and others.

August 1692: More Arrests, Some Escapes, Rising Skepticism

August 1: a group of Boston ministers, led by Increase Mather, met and considered the issues raised by John Proctor's letter, including the use of spectral evidence. The ministers changed their position on the topic of spectral evidence. Before, they had believed that spectral evidence could be believed because the Devil could not impersonate an innocent person. They decided that the Devil was capable of appearing to people in the guise of someone innocent of any witchcraft.

Early August: Philip and Mary English escaped to New York, at the urging of a Boston minister. Governor Phips and others are thought to have helped them in their escape. Property of Philip English in Salem was seized by the sheriff. (Later, when Philip English heard that drought and lack of tending the fields were causing a food shortage in Salem Village, Philip had a shipment of corn sent to the village.)

Also sometime in August, John Alden Jr. escaped from the Boston jail and went to New York.

August 2: The Court of Oyer and Terminer considered the cases of John Proctor, his wife Elizabeth Proctor, Martha Carrier, George Jacobs Sr., George Burroughs, and John Willard.

August 5: Grand juries indicted George Burroughs, Mary English, Martha Carrier, and George Jacobs Sr. The trial juries convicted George Burroughs, Martha Carrier, George Jacobs Sr., John Proctor and his wife Elizabeth Proctor, and John Willard, and they were condemned to hang. Elizabeth Proctor was given a temporary stay of execution because she was pregnant. A petition from 35 of Salem Village's respected citizens on behalf of George Burroughs failed to move the court.

August 11: Abigail Faulkner, Sr., was arrested, accused by several neighbors. She was examined by Jonathan Corwin, John Hathorne, and John Higginson. Accusers included Ann Putnam, Mary Warren, and William Barker, Sr. Sarah Carrier, age 7 and the daughter of Martha Carrier (convicted August 5) and Thomas Carrier, was examined.

August 19: John Proctor, George Burroughs, George Jacobs Sr., John Willard, and Martha Carrier were hanged. Elizabeth Proctor remained in jail, her execution postponed because of her pregnancy. Rebecca Eames was at the hanging and was accused by another spectator of causing a pinprick in her foot; Rebecca Eames was arrested and she and Mary Lacey were examined at Salem that day. Eames confessed and implicated her son Daniel.

August 20: Regretting her testimony against George Burroughs and her grandfather George Jacobs Sr., the day after their execution, Margaret Jacobs recanted her testimony against them.

August 29: Elizabeth Johnson Sr., Abigail Johnson (11) and Stephen Johnson (14) were arrested.

August 30: Abigail Faulkner, Sr., was examined in prison. Elizabeth Johnson Sr. and Abigail Johnson confessed. Elizabeth Johnson Sr. implicated her sister and her son, Stephen.  

August 31: Rebecca Eames was examined a second time, and she repeated her confession, this time implicating not just her son Daniel but also "Toothaker Widow" and Abigail Faulkner.

September 1692: More Executions, Including Death by Pressing

September 1: Samuel Wardwell was examined in court by John Higginson. Wardwell confessed to telling fortunes and making a pact with the devil. He later recanted the confession, but testimony from others about his fortune telling and witchcraft cast doubt on his innocence.

September 5: Jane Lilly and Mary Colson were examined by John Hathorne, John Higginson, and others.

Around September 8: Deliverance Dane, according to a petition issued after the end of the trials (which does not mention the specific date), was first accused when two of the afflicted girls were called to Andover to determine the cause of sickness of both Joseph Ballard and his wife. Others were blindfolded, their hands laid on the “afflicted persons,” and when the afflicted persons fell into fits, the group was seized and taken to Salem. The group included Mary Osgood, Martha Tyler, Deliverance Dane, Abigail Barker, Sarah Wilson, and Hannah Tyler. Some were, the later petition said, persuaded to confess what they were suggested to confess. Afterward, over their shock at arrest, they renounced their confessions. They were reminded that Samuel Wardwell had confessed and then renounced his confession and was therefore condemned and executed; the petition states that they were frightened that they would be next to meet that fate.

September 8: Deliverance Dane confessed under examining, implicating her father-in-law, Rev. Francis Dane, though he was never arrested or questioned.

September 9: The court found Mary Bradbury, Martha Corey, Mary Easty, Dorcas Hoar, Alice Parker, and Ann Pudeator were pronounced guilty of witchcraft and sentenced to hang. Mercy Lewis testified as a witness against Giles Corey. He was formally indicted on the charge of witchcraft and continued to refuse to plead either guilty or not guilty.

September 13: Anne Foster was accused by Mary Walcott, Mary Warren and Elizabeth Hubbard.

September 14: Mary Lacey Sr. was accused by Elizabeth Hubbard, Mercy Lewis and Mary Warren. She was indicted on the charge of witchcraft.

September 15: Margaret Scott was examined in court. Mary Walcott, Mary Warren, and Ann Putnam Jr. gave testimony on September 15 that they had been afflicted by Rebecca Eames.

September 16: Abigail Faulkner, Jr., age 9, was accused and arrested. Dorothy Faulkner and Abigail Faulkner confessed; according to the record, they implicated their mother, stating that “thire mother apared and mayd them witches and also marth [a] Tyler Johanah Tyler: and Sarih Willson and Joseph draper all acknowlidge that they ware lead into that dradfull sin of witchcrift by hir meanse.”

September 17: The court tried and convicted Rebecca Eames, Abigail Faulkner, Anne Foster, Abigail Hobbs, Mary Lacey, Mary Parker, Wilmott Redd, Margaret Scott, and Samuel Wardwell, and they were condemned to be executed.

September 17-19: Under the law, an accused person who refused to plead could not be tried. It has been speculated that Giles Corey realized that if he could not be tried, in a situation where he would most likely be found guilty especially in the wake of his wife's conviction, then the property he had signed over to his daughters' husbands would be less vulnerable to seizure. In an attempt to force Giles Corey to plead either guilty or not guilty, which he refused to do, he was pressed (heavy rocks were placed on a board on his body). He asked for "more weight" to end the ordeal more quickly. After two days, the weight of the stones killed him. Judge Jonathan Corwin ordered his burial in an unmarked grave.

September 18: With testimony from Ann Putnam, Abigail Faulkner Sr. was convicted of witchcraft. Because she was pregnant, her hanging was to be delayed until after she gave birth.

September 22: Martha Corey (whose husband had been pressed to death on September 19), Mary Easty, Alice Parker, Mary Parker, Ann Pudeator, Wilmott Redd, Margaret Scott, and Samuel Wardwell were hanged for witchcraft. Rev. Nicholas Noyes officiated at this last execution in the Salem witch trials, saying after the execution, "What a sad thing it is to see eight firebrands of hell hanging there." Dorcas Hoar, also condemned to be executed, had been granted a temporary stay at the urging of ministers so that she could make a confession to God.

September: the Court of Oyer and Terminer stopped meeting.

October 1692: Halting the Trials

October 3: Rev. Increase Mather denounced the court's reliance on spectral evidence.

October 6: On payment of 500 pounds, Dorothy Faulkner and Abigail Faulkner Jr. were released on recognizance, to the care of John Osgood Sr. and Nathaniel Dane (Dean) Sr. On the same date, Stephen Johnson, Abigail Johnson, and Sarah Carrier were released on payment of 500 pounds, to be cared for by Walter Wright (a weaver), Francis Johnson and Thomas Carrier.

October 8: Influenced by Increase Mather and other Boston-area ministers, Gov. Phips ordered the court to stop using spectral evidence in the proceedings.

October 12: Governor Phips wrote to the Privy Council in England that he formally halted the proceedings in the witch trials.

October 18: Twenty-five citizens, including Rev. Francis Dane, wrote a letter condemning the trials, addressed to the governor and the General Court.

October 29: Governor Phips ordered a stop to any more arrests. He also ordered some of the accused be released. He dissolved the Court of Oyer and Terminer.

Another petition to the Salem court of Assize, undated but probably from October, is on record. More than 50 Andover “neighbors” petitioned on behalf of Mary Osgood, Eunice Fry, Deliverance Dane, Sarah Wilson Sr. and Abigail Barker, stating faith in their integrity and piety, and making clear that they were innocent. The petition protested the way that many had been persuaded to confess under pressure what they were charged with and stated that no neighbors had any reason to suspect that the charges might be true.

November/December 1692: Releases and a Death in Prison

November 1692

November: Mary Herrick reported that the ghost of Mary Easty visited her and told her of her innocence.

November 25: Governor Phips established a Superior Court of Judicature to handle any remaining trials of accused witches in Massachusetts.

December 1692

December: Abigail Faulkner, Sr., petitioned the governor for clemency. She was pardoned and released from prison.

December 3: Anne Foster, convicted and condemned on September 17, died in prison.

Rebecca Eames petitioned the governor for release, retracting her confession and stating she had only confessed because she had been told by Abigail Hobbs and Mary Lacey that she would be hanged if she did not confess.

December 10: Dorcas Good (arrested at 4 or 5 years old) was released from prison when £50 was paid.

December 13: A petition was sent to the governor, council and general assembly by prisoners in Ipswich: Hannah Bromage, Phoebe Day, Elizabeth Dicer, Mehitable Downing, Mary Green, Rachel Haffield or Clenton, Joan Penney, Margaret Prince, Mary Row, Rachel Vinson, and some men.

December 14: William Hobbs, still maintaining his innocence, was released from jail in December when two Topsfield men (one a brother of Rebecca Nurse, Mary Easty and Sarah Cloyce) paid a bond of £200 and left town without his wife and daughter who had confessed and implicated him.

December 15: Mary Green was released from jail on payment of a bond of £200.

December 26: Several members of Salem Village church were asked to appear before the church and explain their absences and differences: Joseph Porter, Joseph Hutchinson Sr., Joseph Putnam, Daniel Andrews, and Francis Nurse.

1693: Clearing the Cases

Note that in Old Style dates, January through March of 1693 (New Style) were listed as part of 1692.

1693: Cotton Mather published his study of satanic possession, Wonders of the Invisible World. Increase Mather, his father, published Cases of Conscience Concerning Evil Spirits, denouncing the use of spectral evidence in trials. Rumors circulated that Increase Mather 's wife was about to be denounced as a witch.

January: The Superior Court tried Sarah Buckley, Margaret Jacobs, Rebecca Jacobs, and Job Tookey, who had been indicted in September, and found them not guilty of the charges. Charges were dismissed for many others of the accused. Sixteen more were tried, with 13 found not guilty and 3 convicted and condemned to hang: Elizabeth Johnson Jr., Sarah Wardwell, and Mary Post. Margaret Hawkes and her slave Mary Black were among those found not guilty on January 3. Candy, another slave, was cleared by proclamation on January 11, and she returned to her master's household when he paid her jail fees. Forty-nine of the accused were released in January because the cases against them relied on spectral evidence.

January 2: The Rev. Francis Dane wrote to fellow ministers that, knowing the people of Andover where he served as senior minister, "I believe many innocent persons have been accused and imprisoned." He denounced the use of spectral evidence. Several of Rev. Dane's family had been accused and imprisoned, including two daughters, a daughter-in-law and several grandchildren. Two of his family members, his daughter Abigail Faulkner and his granddaughter Elizabeth Johnson, Jr., had been sentenced to death.

A similar missive, signed by Rev. Dane and 40 other men and 12 women "neighbors" from Andover, probably from January, was sent to the court of assize on behalf of Mary Osgood, Eunice Fry, Deliverance Dane, Sarah Wilson Sr. and Abigail Barker, stating faith in their integrity and piety, and making clear that they were innocent. The petition protested the way that many had been persuaded to confess under pressure what they were charged with and stated that no neighbors had any reason to suspect that the charges might be true.

January 3: William Stoughton ordered the execution of these three and several others whose executions had not been carried out yet or had been delayed, including women whose executions were temporarily stayed because they were pregnant. Governor Phips pardoned all of those named, countering Stoughton's orders. Stoughton responded by resigning as a judge.

January 7, 1693: Elizabeth Hubbard testified for the last time in the witchcraft trials.

January 17: A court ordered a new committee be selected to govern Salem Village church, on the grounds that the previous committee had neglected to fully raise the minister's salary in 1691 - 1692.

January 27: Elizabeth Proctor gave birth to a son, naming him John Proctor III after his father who had been hanged on August 19 the year before. Elizabeth Proctor's original sentence of execution was not carried out, though she remained in jail.

Late January / early February: Sarah Cole (of Lynn), Lydia and Sarah Dustin, Mary Taylor and Mary Toothaker were tried and found not guilty by the Superior Court. They were, however, held in jail pending payment of their jail fees.

March: Rebecca Eames was released from prison.

March 18: Residents of Andover, Salem Village, and Topsfield petitioned on behalf of Rebecca Nurse, Mary Easty, Abigail Faulkner, Mary Parker, John Proctor, Elizabeth Proctor, Elizabeth How, and Samuel and Sarah Wardwell – all but Abigail Faulkner, Elizabeth Proctor, and Sarah Wardwell had been executed – asking the court to exonerate them for the sake of their relatives and descendants. This was signed by:

  • Francis and Abigail Faulkner
  • Sarah and Samuel Wardwell (children of the Samuel Wardwell who was executed)
  • John and Joseph Parker
  • Nathaniel and Francis Dane (Nathaniel’s wife was Deliverance Dane)
  • Mary and Abigail How
  • Isaac Estey Sr. and Jr.
  • Samuel and John Nurse
  • Phebe Robinson
  • John Tarbel
  • Peter Cloyce Sr.
  • Sarah Gill
  • Rebecca Preston
  • Thorndike and Benjamin Proctor (sons of John Proctor, stepsons of Elizabeth Proctor)

March 20, 1693 (then 1692): Abigail Faulkner Sr., whose execution was only delayed because she was pregnant, and whose sister, sister-in-law, two daughters, two nieces, and a nephew had been among those accused of witchcraft, gave birth to a son she named Ammi Ruhamah, meaning "my people have obtained mercy."

Late April: The Superior Court, meeting in Boston, cleared Captain John Alden Jr. They also heard a new case: a servant was charged with falsely accusing her mistress of witchcraft.

May: The Superior Court dismissed the charges against still more of the accused, and found Mary Barker, William Barker Jr., Mary Bridges Jr., Eunice Fry, and Susannah Post not guilty of the charges against them.

May: Governor Phips formally pardoned those still in prison from the Salem witch trials. He ordered them released if they paid a fine. Governor Phips formally ended the trials at Salem.

May: elections for the General Court saw Samuel Sewall and several others of the judges from the Court of Oyer and Terminer gain in votes from the previous election.

July 22: Robert Eames, the husband of Rebecca Eames, died.

After the Trials: the Aftermath

Salem Village Map from Upham
Salem Village 1692. Public Domain Image, originally from Salem Witchcraft by Charles W. Upham, 1867.

November 26, 1694: Rev. Samuel Parris apologized to his congregation for his part in the events of 1692 and 1693, but many members remained opposed to his ministry there, and the church conflict continued.

1694?: Philip English began to fight in court for the return of his considerable estate after his wife, Mary English, died in childbirth. Sheriff George Corwin had confiscated his property and had not made payments to the English crown as was required, instead likely using the proceeds on English's valuable property for himself.

1695: Nathaniel Saltonstall, the judge who had resigned from the Court of Oyer and Terminer, apparently over the admission of spectral evidence, found himself defeated for reelection to the General Court. William Stoughton was elected with one of the highest vote totals in the same election.

1695: John Proctor's will was accepted by the probate court, implying his rights were restored. His estate was settled in April, though Elizabeth Proctor was not included in the will nor the settlement.

April 3, 1695: Five of six churches met and urged Salem Village to mend their divisions and urged that if they could not do so with Rev. Parris still serving as pastor, that his moving on would not be held against him by other churches. The letter noted the illness of Rev. Parris' wife, Elizabeth.

November 22, 1695: Francis Nurse, the widower of Rebecca Nurse, died at age 77.

1696: George Corwin died, and Philip English put a lien on the corpse based on Corwin's seizure of property from English during the Salem Witch Trials.

June 1696: Elizabeth Proctor filed suit to have the courts restore her dowry.

July 14, 1696: Elizabeth Eldridge Parris, the wife of Rev. Samuel Parris and mother of Elizabeth (Betty) Parris, died.

January 14, 1697: The Massachusetts General Court declared a day of fasting and reflection for the Salem witch trials. Samuel Sewell, one of the judges of the Court of Oyer and Terminer, wrote the proclamation and made a public confession of his own guilt. He set aside one day a year until his death in 1730 to fast and pray for forgiveness for his part in the trials.

April 19, 1697: Elizabeth Proctors dowry was restored to her by a probate court. It had been held by heirs of her husband, John Proctor because her conviction made her ineligible for her dowry.

1697: Rev. Samuel Parris was forced out of his position at Salem Village Church. He took a position in Stow, Massachusetts, and was replaced at the Salem Village church by Rev. Joseph Green, who helped to heal the rift in the congregation.

1697: France and England ended the Nine Years' War and thus King William's War or the Second Indian War in New England also ended.

1699: Elizabeth Proctor married Daniel Richards of Lynn.

1700: Abigail Faulkner, Jr. asked the Massachusetts General Court to reverse her conviction.

1700: Cotton Mather's Wonders of the Invisible World was republished by Robert Calef, a merchant in Boston who added considerable material criticizing the original and the trials, retitling it More Wonders of the Invisible World. Because it was so critical of beliefs about witches and of the clergy, he could not find a publisher in Boston and had it published in England. Cotton Mather's father and colleague at North Church, Increase Mather, burned the book publicly.

1702: The 1692 trials were declared to have been unlawful by the Massachusetts General Court. That same year, a book completed in 1697 by Beverley minister John Hale about the trials was published posthumously as A Modest Inquiry Into the Nature of Witchcraft.

1702: Salem Village church recorded the deaths of Daniel Andrew and two of his sons from smallpox.

1702: Captain John Alden died.

1703: The Massachusetts legislature passed a bill disallowing the use of spectral evidence in court trials. The bill also restored citizenship rights ("reversed attainder," which would allow those individuals or their heirs to exist again as legal persons, and thus file legal claims for return of their property seized in the trials) for John Proctor, Elizabeth Proctor and Rebecca Nurse, on whose behalf petitions had been filed for such restoration.

1703: Abigail Faulkner petitioned the court in Massachusetts to exonerate her of the charge of witchcraft. The court agreed in 1711.

February 14, 1703: Salem Village church proposed revoking the excommunication of Martha Corey; a majority supported it but there were there were 6 or 7 dissenters. The entry at the time implied that therefore the motion failed but a later entry, with more details of the resolution, implied that it had passed.

August 25, 1706: Ann Putnam Jr., in formally joining the Salem Village church, publicly apologized "for the accusing of several persons of a grievous crime, whereby their lives were taken away from them, whom, now I have just grounds and good reason to believe they were innocent persons..."

1708: Salem Village establishes its first schoolhouse for the village's children.

1710: Elizabeth Proctor was paid 578 pounds and 12 shillings in restitution for her husband’s death.

1711: The legislature of the Province of Massachusetts Bay restored all rights to those who had been accused in the 1692 witch trials. Included were George Burroughs, John Proctor, George Jacob, John Willard, Giles and Martha Corey, Rebecca Nurse, Sarah Good, Elizabeth How, Mary Easty, Sarah Wilds, Abigail Hobbs, Samuel Wardell, Mary Parker, Martha Carrier, Abigail Faulkner, Anne Foster, Rebecca Eames, Mary Post, Mary Lacey, Mary Bradbury and Dorcas Hoar.

The legislature also gave compensation to the heirs of 23 of those convicted, in the amount of £600. Rebecca Nurse's family won compensation for her wrongful execution. Mary Easty's family received £20 compensation for her wrongful execution; her husband, Isaac, died in 1712. Mary Bradbury's heirs received £20. George Burroughs's children received compensation for his wrongful execution. The Proctor family received £150 in compensation for the conviction and execution of family members. One of the largest settlements went to William Good for his wife Sarah—against whom he had testified—and their daughter Dorcas, imprisoned at 4 or 5 years old. He said that the imprisonment of Dorcas had "ruined" her and that she had been "no good" after that.

Also in 1711, Elizabeth Hubbard, one of the main accusers, married John Bennett in Gloucester. They were to have four children.

March 6, 1712: Salem church reversed the excommunication of Rebecca Nurse and Giles Corey

1714: Philip English helped finance an Anglican church near Salem and refused to pay local church taxes; he accused Rev. Noyes of murdering John Proctor and Rebecca Nurse.

1716: England held its last trial for witchcraft; the accused were a woman and her 9-year-old daughter.

1717: Benjamin Proctor, who had moved with his stepmother to Lynn and married there, died in Salem Village.

1718: Philip English's legal claims, for compensation for the seizure of his property during the witch trials, were finally settled.

1736: England and Scotland abolished witchcraft prosecution on the order of King George II.

1752: Salem Village changed its name to Danvers; the King overruled this decision in 1759 and the village ignored his order.

July 4, 1804: Nathaniel Hathorne was born in Salem, Massachusetts, great-great-grandson of John Hathorne, one of the Salem witch trials judges. Before achieving fame as a novelist and short story writer, he added a "w" to his name making it "Hawthorne." Many have speculated that he did that to distance himself from an ancestor whose actions embarrassed him; Hathorne's name is spelled as Hawthorne in some of the 1692 transcripts (example: Ann Doliver, June 6). Hawthorne's contemporary, Ralph Waldo Emerson, was a descendant of Mary Bradbury, among the accused witches at Salem in 1692.

1952: American playwright Arthur Miller wrote The Crucible, a play that fictionalized the Salem witch trial events of 1692 and 1693, and served as an allegory for the then-current blacklisting of communists under McCarthyism.

1957: The remaining accused who had not been previously legally exonerated were included in an act in Massachusetts, clearing their names. Although only Ann Pudeator was mentioned explicitly, the act also exonerated Bridget Bishop, Susannah Martin, Alice Parker, Wilmott Redd and Margaret Scott.