As the son of Charlemagne, Louis became king of Aquitaine when he was only three years old. He was the only designated heir to survive his father, and he showed some of the old king's verve and tenacity.
France has a long and rich history. Learn about key events which span from c.800 BCE to the twentieth century.
A collection of memorable last words spoken by famous crowned heads throughout history including Charlemagne and Queen Victoria.
Learn about the history of the Saxons. Read who the Saxons were, when and where they thrived, and what happened to them.
Known as Charles the Fat, Emperor Charles III was the last of the Carolingian line of emperors.
Charles Martel was the de facto ruler of the Frankish kingdom. Learn more about his role in turning back the Muslim invasions of Europe.
Language standardization is the process by which conventional forms of a language are established and maintained.
Europe has seen many different types of leaders--good and terrible--from emperors to prime ministers and from Queens to dictators.
Matilda of Tuscany was the most powerful woman in Italy of her time, a key player in the wars between the Holy Roman Emperor and the Pope.
Key Events in Italian History; a history of Italy from its legendary founding in the 7th century BCE to the foundation of its republic in 1948.