Humanities › English State Abbreviations Why Are There Two Different Abbreviations for the 50 States? Share Flipboard Email Print Rainer Lesniewsk/Getty Images English Writing Writing Essays Writing Research Papers Journalism English Grammar By Richard Nordquist English and Rhetoric Professor Ph.D., Rhetoric and English, University of Georgia M.A., Modern English and American Literature, University of Leicester B.A., English, State University of New York Dr. Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks. our editorial process Richard Nordquist Updated January 24, 2020 There are three different ways to write state names: you can spell them out in their entirety, you can use traditional abbreviations, or you can use postal abbreviations. In most cases, postal abbreviations are appropriate and well understood. There are situations, however, in which it's correct to spell out state names. The decision will depend on the context of your writing and on the style guide you're following. When to Spell Out State Names As a general rule, the names of states should be spelled out when they appear in sentences but abbreviated in other contexts. For example: "Our family had been transferred from Endicott, New York, to Raleigh, North Carolina. That was the word used by the people at IBM, transferred." (David Sedaris, "Naked," 1997)"Both men were raised in the Midwest (Garfield in Ohio, Guiteau in Illinois) by a single, widowed parent." (Sarah Vowell, "Assassination Vacation," 2005) This rule applies also if you are writing something formal and following a style guide, such as the Chicago Manual of Style, MLA Style, American Psychological Association Publication Manual (APA), or Associated Press Style (AP). When to Use State Abbreviations In bibliographies, lists, charts where space is at a premium, reference lists, footnotes and endnotes, and in mailing addresses, state names are usually shortened using the postal abbreviation. This applies to Chicago Manual of Style and the American psychological Association Style (APA). The two-letter, no-period state abbreviations recommended by the U.S. Postal Service (see "Postal Abbreviations" in the chart below) should always be used where a Zone Improvement Plan (ZIP) code follows. These postal abbreviations may also be used in any context where abbreviations are appropriate. Some writers and editors still prefer to use the older forms of state abbreviations (see "Traditional Abbreviations in the table below), though this is rare. In 1987, the Secretary of Commerce switched to the more commonly used two-letter postal code abbreviations. If you follow the older practice, be consistent in your use of the traditional abbreviations, and remember that eight states (Alaska, Hawaii, Idaho, Iowa, Maine, Ohio, Texas, and Utah) are only rarely abbreviated when using the older (pre-ZIP code) forms. Why the ZIP Code Abbreviations Were Developed Before 1963, there were no ZIP codes used on postal mail in the United States, and the U.S. Post Office preferred that people wrote out state and territory names completely to avoid confusion in sorting mail. In the early 1800s, it had established a standardized list of acceptable abbreviations, updating it in 1874. The list remained relatively unchanged until ZIP codes were introduced. The addition of seven additional characters on a final address line (ZIP code plus two spaces) necessitated the shortening of state abbreviations to fewer characters. The Post Office aimed to fit the final address line into 23 characters to accommodate "major addressing systems." U.S. or US for United States Finally, United States may be abbreviated to U.S. when used as an adjective, but in formal writing, it's customarily spelled out as a noun. If you are following the Chicago Manual, you'll remove the periods to become US except in bibliography or reference entries pertaining to U.S. statutes, court cases, and other legal-context usages, which retain the periods. If you're following APA or AP, you will keep the periods there too. MLA prefers to spell out United States as an adjective or a noun in running text. List of State Abbreviations This handy chart has both the postal and the traditional abbreviations, for your reference: STATE POSTAL ABBREVIATION TRADITIONAL ABBREVIATION Alabama AL Ala. Alaska AK Alaska Arizona AZ Ariz. Arkansas AR Ark. California CA Calif. Colorado CO Colo. Connecticut CT Conn. Delaware DE Del. District of Columbia DC D.C. Florida FL Fla. Georgia GA Ga. Hawaii HI Hawaii Idaho ID Idaho Illinois IL Ill. Indiana IN Ind. Iowa IA Iowa Kansas KS Kans. Kentucky KY Ky. Louisiana LA La. Maine ME Maine Maryland MD Md. Massachusetts MA Mass. Michigan MI Mich. Minnesota MN Minn. Mississippi MS Miss. Missouri MO Mo. Montana MT Mont. Nebraska NE Neb. or Nebr. Nevada NV Nev. New Hampshire NH N.H. New Jersey NJ N.J. New Mexico NM N.Mex. New York NY N.Y. North Carolina NC N.C. North Dakota ND N.Dak. Ohio OH Ohio Oklahoma OK Okla. Oregon OR Ore. or Oreg. Pennsylvania PA Pa. Rhode Island RI R.I. South Carolina SC S.C. South Dakota SD S.Dak. Tennessee TN Tenn. Texas TX Tex. or Texas Utah UT Utah Vermont VT Vt. Virginia VA Va. Washington WA Wash. West Virginia WV W.Va. Wisconsin WI Wis. or Wisc. Wyoming WY Wyo. Cite this Article Format mla apa chicago Your Citation Nordquist, Richard. "State Abbreviations." ThoughtCo, Aug. 27, 2020, thoughtco.com/state-abbreviations-1691753. Nordquist, Richard. (2020, August 27). State Abbreviations. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/state-abbreviations-1691753 Nordquist, Richard. "State Abbreviations." ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/state-abbreviations-1691753 (accessed October 20, 2021). copy citation About the U.S. Postal Service What's the Preferred Way to Write the Abbreviation for United States? Abbreviations and Titles All College Students Should Know 140 Key Copyediting Terms and What They Mean Advisor vs. Adviser: How to Choose the Right Word Top 10 Reference Works for Writers and Editors Is End of Saturday Mail Delivery Such a Good Idea? Postal Codes for Canada What Is an Abbreviation? Lowercase Letters Explained APA In-Text Citations Abbreviations for Provinces and Territories in Canada Editing and Proofreading Marks in Composition Definition and Examples of Periods: Full Stop Tips for Writing Effective Letters to Congress What Is a Citation?