Table of Densities of Common Substances

Compare the Densities of Solids, Liquids, and Gases

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Here's a table of densities of common substances, including several gases, liquids, and solids. Density is a measure of the amount of mass contained in a unit of volume. The general trend is that most gases are less dense than liquids, which are in turn less dense than solids, but there are numerous exceptions. For this reason, the table lists density from lowest to highest and includes the state of matter.

Note that the density of pure water is defined to be 1 gram per cubic centimeter (or, g/ml). Unlike most substances, water is denser as a liquid than as a solid. A consequence is that ice floats on water. Also, pure water is less dense than seawater, so fresh water can float on top of salt water, mixing at the interface.

The Factors That Affect Density

Density depends on temperature and pressure. For solids, it's also affected by the way atoms and molecules stack together. A pure substance can take many forms, which don't have the same properties. For example, carbon can take the form of graphite or diamond. Both are chemically identical, but they do not share an identical density value.

To convert these density values into kilograms per cubic meter, multiply any of the numbers by 1000.

Densities of Common Substances

Material Density (g/cm3) State of Matter
hydrogen (at STP) 0.00009 gas
helium (at STP) 0.000178 gas
carbon monoxide (at STP) 0.00125 gas
nitrogen (at STP) 0.001251 gas
air (at STP) 0.001293 gas
carbon dioxide (at STP) 0.001977 gas
lithium 0.534 solid
ethanol (grain alcohol) 0.810 liquid
benzene 0.900 liquid
ice 0.920 solid
water at 20°C 0.998 liquid
water at 4°C 1.000 liquid
seawater 1.03 liquid
milk 1.03 liquid
coal 1.1-1.4 solid
blood 1.600 liquid
magnesium 1.7 solid
granite 2.6-2.7 solid
aluminum 2.7 solid
steel 7.8 solid
iron 7.8 solid
copper 8.3-9.0 solid
lead 11.3 solid
mercury 13.6 liquid
uranium 18.7 solid
gold 19.3 solid
platinum 21.4 solid
osmium 22.6 solid
iridium 22.6 solid
white dwarf star 107 solid