Table of Densities of Common Substances

Compare Density of Solids, Liquids, and Gases

Take a look at the density of common objects. Oil floats on water; some solids float on liquids while other sink. Different density is why icebergs (fresh water) float on the ocean (salt water).
Take a look at the density of common objects. Oil floats on water; some solids float on liquids while other sink. Different density is why icebergs (fresh water) float on the ocean (salt water). Dave King, Getty Images

Here's a table of densities of common substances, including several gases, liquids, and solids. Density is a measure of the amount of mass contained in a unit of volume. The general trend is that most gases are less dense than liquids, which are in turn less dense than solids, but there are numerous exceptions. For this reason, the table lists density from lowest to highest and includes the state of matter.

Note that the density of pure water is defined to be 1 gram per cubic centimeter (or g/ml). Unlike most substances, water is more dense as a liquid than as a solid. A consequence is that ice floats on water. Also, pure water is less dense than seawater, so fresh water can float on top of salt water, mixing at the interface.

Density depends on temperature and pressure. For solids, it's also affected by the way atoms and molecules stack together. A pure substance can take many forms, which don't have the same properties. For example, carbon can take the form of graphite or of diamond. Both are chemically identical, but they do not share an identical density value.

To convert these density values into kilograms per cubic meter, multiply any of the numbers by 1000.

MaterialDensity (g/cm3)State of Matter
hydrogen (at STP)0.00009gas
helium (at STP)0.000178gas
carbon monoxide (at STP)0.00125gas
nitrogen (at STP)0.001251gas
air (at STP)0.001293gas
carbon dioxide (at STP)0.001977gas
lithium0.534solid
ethanol (grain alcohol)0.810liquid
benzene0.900liquid
ice0.920solid
water at 20°C0.998liquid
water at 4°C1.000liquid
seawater1.03liquid
milk1.03liquid
coal1.1-1.4solid
blood1.600liquid
magnesium1.7solid
granite2.6-2.7solid
aluminum2.7solid
steel7.8solid
iron7.8solid
copper8.3-9.0solid
lead11.3solid
mercury13.6liquid
uranium18.7solid
gold19.3solid
platinum21.4solid
osmium22.6solid
iridium22.6solid
white dwarf star107solid

 

If you're interested specifically in the chemical elements, here's a comparison of their densities at ordinary temperature and pressure.

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Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. "Table of Densities of Common Substances." ThoughtCo, Jan. 2, 2016, thoughtco.com/table-of-densities-of-common-substances-603976. Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. (2016, January 2). Table of Densities of Common Substances. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/table-of-densities-of-common-substances-603976 Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. "Table of Densities of Common Substances." ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/table-of-densities-of-common-substances-603976 (accessed November 18, 2017).