Table of Electrical Resistivity and Conductivity

Flow of Electric Current Through Materials

circuit board
These are resistors on a computer circuit board. The colored lines indicate the amount of resistance. imagestock / Getty Images

This is a table of electrical resistivity and electrical conductivity of several materials.

Electrical resistivity, represented by the Greek letter ρ (rho), is a measure of how strongly a material opposes the flow of electric current. The lower the resistivity, the more readily the material permits the flow of electric charge.

Electrical conductivity is the reciprocal quantity of resistivity. Conductivity is a measure of how well a material conducts an electric current.

Electric conductivity may be represented by the Greek letter σ (sigma), κ (kappa), or γ (gamma).

Table of Resistivity and Conductivity at 20°C

Materialρ (Ω•m) at 20 °C
Resistivity
σ (S/m) at 20 °C
Conductivity
Silver1.59×10−86.30×107
Copper1.68×10−85.96×107
Annealed copper1.72×10−85.80×107
Gold2.44×10−84.10×107
Aluminum2.82×10−83.5×107
Calcium3.36×10−82.98×107
Tungsten5.60×10−81.79×107
Zinc5.90×10−81.69×107
Nickel6.99×10−81.43×107
Lithium9.28×10−81.08×107
Iron1.0×10−71.00×107
Platinum1.06×10−79.43×106
Tin1.09×10−79.17×106
Carbon steel(1010)1.43×10−7
Lead2.2×10−74.55×106
Titanium4.20×10−72.38×106
Grain oriented electrical steel4.60×10−72.17×106
Manganin4.82×10−72.07×106
Constantan4.9×10−72.04×106
Stainless steel6.9×10−71.45×106
Mercury9.8×10−71.02×106
Nichrome1.10×10−69.09×105
GaAs5×10−7 to 10×10−35×10−8 to 103
Carbon (amorphous)5×10−4 to 8×10−41.25 to 2×103
Carbon (graphite)2.5×10−6 to 5.0×10−6 //basal plane
3.0×10−3 ⊥basal plane
2 to 3×105 //basal plane
3.3×102 ⊥basal plane
Carbon (diamond)1×1012~10−13
Germanium4.6×10−12.17
Sea water2×10−14.8
Drinking water2×101 to 2×1035×10−4 to 5×10−2
Silicon6.40×1021.56×10−3
Wood (damp)1×103 to 410−4 to 10-3
Deionized water1.8×1055.5×10−6
Glass10×1010 to 10×101410−11 to 10−15
Hard rubber1×101310−14
Wood (oven dry)1×1014 to 1610−16 to 10-14
Sulfur1×101510−16
Air1.3×1016 to 3.3×10163×10−15 to 8×10−15
Paraffin wax1×101710−18
Fused quartz7.5×10171.3×10−18
PET10×102010−21
Teflon10×1022 to 10×102410−25 to 10−23

Factors That Affect Electrical Conductivity

There are three main factors that affect the conductivity or resistivity of a material:

  1. Cross Sectional Area - If the cross section of a material is large, it can allow more current to pass through it. Similarly, a thin cross section restricts current flow.
  2. Length of the Conductor - A short conductor allows current to flow at a higher rate than a long conductor. It's sort of like trying to move a lot of people through a hallway.
  1. Temperature - Increasing temperature makes particles vibrate or move more. Increasing this movement (increasing temperature) decreases conductivity because the molecules are more likely to get in the way of current flow. At extremely low temperatures, some materials are superconductors.

References

  • MatWeb Material Property Data.
  • Serway, Raymond A. (1998). Principles of Physics (2nd ed ed.). Fort Worth, Texas; London: Saunders College Pub. p. 602. ISBN 0-03-020457-7.
  • Griffiths, David (1999) [1981]. "7. Electrodynamics". In Alison Reeves (ed.). Introduction to Electrodynamics (3rd edition ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall. p. 286. ISBN 0-13-805326-X. OCLC 40251748.
  • Giancoli, Douglas C. (1995). Physics: Principles with Applications (4th ed ed.). London: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-102153-2.
  • Glenn Elert (ed.), "Resistivity of steel", The Physics Factbook, retrieved and archived 16 June 2011.
  • Ohring, Milton (1995). Engineering materials science, Volume 1 (3rd edition ed.). p. 561.
  • Pawar, S. D.; Murugavel, P.; Lal, D. M. (2009). "Effect of relative humidity and sea level pressure on electrical conductivity of air over Indian Ocean". Journal of Geophysical Research 114: D02205.
Format
mla apa chicago
Your Citation
Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. "Table of Electrical Resistivity and Conductivity." ThoughtCo, Jul. 19, 2017, thoughtco.com/table-of-electrical-resistivity-conductivity-608499. Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. (2017, July 19). Table of Electrical Resistivity and Conductivity. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/table-of-electrical-resistivity-conductivity-608499 Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. "Table of Electrical Resistivity and Conductivity." ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/table-of-electrical-resistivity-conductivity-608499 (accessed December 17, 2017).