The Names of Nationalities

Ever wonder what residents of a country are called?

Flags flying at the El Alamein War Cemetery
M Timothy O'Keefe/Photographer's Choice/Getty Images

Ever wonder what to call someone from a different country? Most nationality words are formed with a portion of the name of the country, with suffixes -an, -ean, -ian, or -ese added, but which goes with which name, and which don't follow any such pattern? (See Greece and Cyprus, for instance.) This list provides the demonym (the name given to the people of a place) for each of the countries of the world.

(Taiwan, not recognized as a country officially by the United Nations, is also included in this list.) Demonyms can also be used to refer to people of other types of places, such as state or city inhabitants, but that is outside the scope of this article.

Ethnonym vs. Demonym

Contrast demonym, the natives or inhabitants of a particular place, with ethnonym, which refers to people of a particular ethnic group. When locations with strong ethnic identity come under one nation's umbrella, using the overall demonym might not be a person's preferred term. For example, those in Northern Iraq who are of the Kurdish heritage and want independence for Kurdistan, would likely rather prefer to be called Kurds than Iraqis. The Irish and Scottish residents of the U.K. might not prefer to be called Britons but Irish and Scots.

Etymology

Interestingly enough, the first known usage of the term demonym in this way was only in 1990.

It had previously been used, in the mid-19th century, to note a descriptive term that was used by a writer as a pen name. The first part of the word, dem- (meaning "the people") also forms words such as demographics, and -onym is all about names and words. 

CountryDemonym
AfghanistanAfghan
AlbaniaAlbanian
AlgeriaAlgerian
AndorraAndorran
AngolaAngolan
Antigua and BarbudaAntiguans, Barbudans
ArgentinaArgentine or Argentinean
ArmeniaArmenian
AustraliaAustralian or Ozzie or Aussie
AustriaAustrian
AzerbaijanAzerbaijani
The BahamasBahamian
BahrainBahraini
BangladeshBangladeshi
BarbadosBarbadian or Bajuns
BelarusBelarusian
BelgiumBelgian
BelizeBelizean
BeninBeninese
BhutanBhutanese
BoliviaBolivian
Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnian, Herzegovinian
BotswanaMotswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
BrazilBrazilian
BruneiBruneian
BulgariaBulgarian
Burkina FasoBurkinabe
BurundiBurundian
CambodiaCambodian
CameroonCameroonian
CanadaCanadian
Cape VerdeCape Verdian or Cape Verdean
Central African RepublicCentral African
ChadChadian
ChileChilean
ChinaChinese
ColombiaColombian
ComorosComoran
Congo, Republic of theCongolese
Congo, Democratic Republic of theCongolese
Costa RicaCosta Rican
Cote d'IvoireIvorian
CroatiaCroat or Croatian
CubaCuban
CyprusCypriot
Czech RepublicCzech
DenmarkDane or Danish
DjiboutiDjibouti
DominicaDominican
Dominican RepublicDominican
East TimorEast Timorese
EcuadorEcuadorean
EgyptEgyptian
El SalvadorSalvadoran
Equatorial GuineaEquatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean
EritreaEritrean
EstoniaEstonian
EthiopiaEthiopian
FijiFijian
FinlandFinn or Finnish
FranceFrench or Frenchman or Frenchwoman
GabonGabonese
The GambiaGambian
GeorgiaGeorgian
GermanyGerman
GhanaGhanaian
GreeceGreek
GrenadaGrenadian or Grenadan
GuatemalaGuatemalan
GuineaGuinean
Guinea-BissauGuinea-Bissauan
GuyanaGuyanese
HaitiHaitian
HondurasHonduran
HungaryHungarian
IcelandIcelander
IndiaIndian
IndonesiaIndonesian
IranIranian
IraqIraqi
IrelandIrishman or Irishwoman or Irish
IsraelIsraeli
ItalyItalian
JamaicaJamaican
JapanJapanese
JordanJordanian
KazakhstanKazakhstani
KenyaKenyan
KiribatiI-Kiribati
Korea, NorthNorth Korean
Korea, SouthSouth Korean
KosovoKosovar
KuwaitKuwaiti
Kyrgyz Republic/KyrgyzstanKyrgyz or Kirghiz
LaosLao or Laotian
LatviaLatvian
LebanonLebanese
LesothoMosotho (plural Basotho)
LiberiaLiberian
LibyaLibyan
LiechtensteinLiechtensteiner
LithuaniaLithuanian
LuxembourgLuxembourger
MacedoniaMacedonian
MadagascarMalagasy
MalawiMalawian
MalaysiaMalaysian
MaldivesMaldivan
MaliMalian
MaltaMaltese
Marshall IslandsMarshallese
MauritaniaMauritanian
MauritiusMauritian
MexicoMexican
Federated States of MicronesiaMicronesian
MoldovaMoldovan
MonacoMonegasque or Monacan
MongoliaMongolian
MontenegroMontenegrin
MoroccoMoroccan
MozambiqueMozambican
Myanmar (Burma)Burmese or Myanmarese
NamibiaNamibian
NauruNauruan
NepalNepalese
NetherlandsNetherlander, Dutchman, Dutchwoman, Hollander or Dutch (collective)
New ZealandNew Zealander or Kiwi
NicaraguaNicaraguan
NigerNigerien
NigeriaNigerian
NorwayNorwegian
OmanOmani
PakistanPakistani
PalauPalauan
PanamaPanamanian
Papua New GuineaPapua New Guinean
ParaguayParaguayan
PeruPeruvian
PhilippinesFilipino
PolandPole or Polish
PortugalPortuguese
QatarQatari
RomaniaRomanian
RussiaRussian
RwandaRwandan
Saint Kitts and NevisKittian and Nevisian
Saint LuciaSaint Lucian
SamoaSamoan
San MarinoSammarinese or San Marinese
Sao Tome and PrincipeSao Tomean
Saudi ArabiaSaudi or Saudi Arabian
SenegalSenegalese
SerbiaSerbian
SeychellesSeychellois
Sierra LeoneSierra Leonean
SingaporeSingaporean
SlovakiaSlovak or Slovakian
SloveniaSlovene or Slovenian
Solomon IslandsSolomon Islander
SomaliaSomali
South AfricaSouth African
SpainSpaniard or Spanish
Sri LankaSri Lankan
SudanSudanese
SurinameSurinamer
SwazilandSwazi
SwedenSwede or Swedish
SwitzerlandSwiss
SyriaSyrian
TaiwanTaiwanese
TajikistanTajik or Tadzhik
TanzaniaTanzanian
ThailandThai
TogoTogolese
TongaTongan
Trinidad and TobagoTrinidadian or Tobagonian
TunisiaTunisian
TurkeyTurk or Turkish
TurkmenistanTurkmen(s)
TuvaluTuvaluan
UgandaUgandan
UkraineUkrainian
United Arab EmiratesEmirian
United KingdomBriton or British (collective), Englishman or Englishwoman, Scot or Scotsman or Scotswoman, Welshman or Welshwoman, Northern Irishman or Northern Irishwoman or Irish (collective) or Northern Irish (collective)
United StatesAmerican
UruguayUruguayan
UzbekistanUzbek or Uzbekistani
VanuatuNi-Vanuatu
Vatican City (Holy See)none
VenezuelaVenezuelan
VietnamVietnamese
YemenYemeni or Yemenite
ZambiaZambian
ZimbabweZimbabwean