The Names of Nationalities

Ever wonder what residents of a country are called?

Flags flying at the El Alamein War Cemetery
M Timothy O'Keefe/Photographer's Choice/Getty Images

Ever wonder what to call someone from a different country? Most nationality words are formed with a portion of the name of the country, with suffixes -an, -ean, -ian, or -ese added, but which goes with which name, and which don't follow any such pattern? (See Greece and Cyprus, for instance.) This list provides the demonym (the name given to the people of a place) for each of the countries of the world. (Taiwan, not recognized as a country officially by the United Nations, is also included in this list.) Demonyms can also be used to refer to people of other types of places, such as state or city inhabitants, but that is outside the scope of this article.

Ethnonym vs. Demonym

Contrast demonym, the natives or inhabitants of a particular place, with ethnonym, which refers to people of a particular ethnic group. When locations with strong ethnic identity come under one nation's umbrella, using the overall demonym might not be a person's preferred term. For example, those in Northern Iraq who are of the Kurdish heritage and want independence for Kurdistan, would likely rather prefer to be called Kurds than Iraqis. The Irish and Scottish residents of the U.K. might not prefer to be called Britons but Irish and Scots.

Etymology

Interestingly enough, the first known usage of the term demonym in this way was only in 1990. It had previously been used, in the mid-19th century, to note a descriptive term that was used by a writer as a pen name. The first part of the word, dem- (meaning "the people") also forms words such as demographics, and -onym is all about names and words. 

Country Demonym
Afghanistan Afghan
Albania Albanian
Algeria Algerian
Andorra Andorran
Angola Angolan
Antigua and Barbuda Antiguans, Barbudans
Argentina Argentine or Argentinean
Armenia Armenian
Australia Australian or Ozzie or Aussie
Austria Austrian
Azerbaijan Azerbaijani
The Bahamas Bahamian
Bahrain Bahraini
Bangladesh Bangladeshi
Barbados Barbadian or Bajuns
Belarus Belarusian
Belgium Belgian
Belize Belizean
Benin Beninese
Bhutan Bhutanese
Bolivia Bolivian
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian, Herzegovinian
Botswana Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
Brazil Brazilian
Brunei Bruneian
Bulgaria Bulgarian
Burkina Faso Burkinabe
Burundi Burundian
Cambodia Cambodian
Cameroon Cameroonian
Canada Canadian
Cape Verde Cape Verdian or Cape Verdean
Central African Republic Central African
Chad Chadian
Chile Chilean
China Chinese
Colombia Colombian
Comoros Comoran
Congo, Republic of the Congolese
Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congolese
Costa Rica Costa Rican
Cote d'Ivoire Ivorian
Croatia Croat or Croatian
Cuba Cuban
Cyprus Cypriot
Czech Republic Czech
Denmark Dane or Danish
Djibouti Djibouti
Dominica Dominican
Dominican Republic Dominican
East Timor East Timorese
Ecuador Ecuadorean
Egypt Egyptian
El Salvador Salvadoran
Equatorial Guinea Equatorial Guinean or Equatoguinean
Eritrea Eritrean
Estonia Estonian
Ethiopia Ethiopian
Fiji Fijian
Finland Finn or Finnish
France French or Frenchman or Frenchwoman
Gabon Gabonese
The Gambia Gambian
Georgia Georgian
Germany German
Ghana Ghanaian
Greece Greek
Grenada Grenadian or Grenadan
Guatemala Guatemalan
Guinea Guinean
Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissauan
Guyana Guyanese
Haiti Haitian
Honduras Honduran
Hungary Hungarian
Iceland Icelander
India Indian
Indonesia Indonesian
Iran Iranian
Iraq Iraqi
Ireland Irishman or Irishwoman or Irish
Israel Israeli
Italy Italian
Jamaica Jamaican
Japan Japanese
Jordan Jordanian
Kazakhstan Kazakhstani
Kenya Kenyan
Kiribati I-Kiribati
Korea, North North Korean
Korea, South South Korean
Kosovo Kosovar
Kuwait Kuwaiti
Kyrgyz Republic/Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyz or Kirghiz
Laos Lao or Laotian
Latvia Latvian
Lebanon Lebanese
Lesotho Mosotho (plural Basotho)
Liberia Liberian
Libya Libyan
Liechtenstein Liechtensteiner
Lithuania Lithuanian
Luxembourg Luxembourger
Macedonia Macedonian
Madagascar Malagasy
Malawi Malawian
Malaysia Malaysian
Maldives Maldivan
Mali Malian
Malta Maltese
Marshall Islands Marshallese
Mauritania Mauritanian
Mauritius Mauritian
Mexico Mexican
Federated States of Micronesia Micronesian
Moldova Moldovan
Monaco Monegasque or Monacan
Mongolia Mongolian
Montenegro Montenegrin
Morocco Moroccan
Mozambique Mozambican
Myanmar (Burma) Burmese or Myanmarese
Namibia Namibian
Nauru Nauruan
Nepal Nepalese
Netherlands Netherlander, Dutchman, Dutchwoman, Hollander or Dutch (collective)
New Zealand New Zealander or Kiwi
Nicaragua Nicaraguan
Niger Nigerien
Nigeria Nigerian
Norway Norwegian
Oman Omani
Pakistan Pakistani
Palau Palauan
Panama Panamanian
Papua New Guinea Papua New Guinean
Paraguay Paraguayan
Peru Peruvian
Philippines Filipino
Poland Pole or Polish
Portugal Portuguese
Qatar Qatari
Romania Romanian
Russia Russian
Rwanda Rwandan
Saint Kitts and Nevis Kittian and Nevisian
Saint Lucia Saint Lucian
Samoa Samoan
San Marino Sammarinese or San Marinese
Sao Tome and Principe Sao Tomean
Saudi Arabia Saudi or Saudi Arabian
Senegal Senegalese
Serbia Serbian
Seychelles Seychellois
Sierra Leone Sierra Leonean
Singapore Singaporean
Slovakia Slovak or Slovakian
Slovenia Slovene or Slovenian
Solomon Islands Solomon Islander
Somalia Somali
South Africa South African
Spain Spaniard or Spanish
Sri Lanka Sri Lankan
Sudan Sudanese
Suriname Surinamer
Swaziland Swazi
Sweden Swede or Swedish
Switzerland Swiss
Syria Syrian
Taiwan Taiwanese
Tajikistan Tajik or Tadzhik
Tanzania Tanzanian
Thailand Thai
Togo Togolese
Tonga Tongan
Trinidad and Tobago Trinidadian or Tobagonian
Tunisia Tunisian
Turkey Turk or Turkish
Turkmenistan Turkmen(s)
Tuvalu Tuvaluan
Uganda Ugandan
Ukraine Ukrainian
United Arab Emirates Emirian
United Kingdom Briton or British (collective), Englishman or Englishwoman, Scot or Scotsman or Scotswoman, Welshman or Welshwoman, Northern Irishman or Northern Irishwoman or Irish (collective) or Northern Irish (collective)
United States American
Uruguay Uruguayan
Uzbekistan Uzbek or Uzbekistani
Vanuatu Ni-Vanuatu
Vatican City (Holy See) none
Venezuela Venezuelan
Vietnam Vietnamese
Yemen Yemeni or Yemenite
Zambia Zambian
Zimbabwe Zimbabwean