Humanities › History & Culture History of Theresienstadt The "Model" Ghetto Share Flipboard Email Print Photo from the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, courtesy of Ivan Vojtech Fric History & Culture The 20th Century People & Events Fads & Fashions Early 20th Century The 20s The 30s The 40s The 50s The 60s The 80s The 90s American History African American History African History Ancient History and Culture Asian History European History Genealogy Inventions Latin American History Medieval & Renaissance History Military History Women's History View More By Jennifer Rosenberg History Expert B.A., History, University of California at Davis Jennifer Rosenberg is a historian and writer who specializes in 20th-century history. our editorial process Jennifer Rosenberg Updated January 23, 2020 Ghetto Theresienstadt has long been remembered for its culture, its famous prisoners, and its visit by Red Cross officials. What many don't know is that within this serene facade lay a real concentration camp. With nearly 60,000 Jews inhabiting an area originally designed for only 7,000 -- extremely close quarters, disease, and lack of food were serious concerns. But in many ways, life and death within Theresienstadt became focused on the frequent transports to Auschwitz. The Beginnings By 1941, conditions for Czech Jews were growing worse. The Nazis were in the process of creating a plan of how to treat and how to deal with Czechs and Czech Jews. The Czech-Jewish community had already felt pangs of loss and disunion since several transports had already been sent East. Jakob Edelstein, a prominent member of the Czech-Jewish community, believed that it would be better for his community to be concentrated locally rather than sent to the East. At the same time, the Nazis were facing two dilemmas. The first dilemma was what to do with the prominent Jews that were being carefully watched and looked after by Aryans. Since most Jews were sent on transports under the pretension of "work," the second dilemma was how could the Nazis peacefully transport the elderly Jewish generation. Though Edelstein had hoped that the ghetto would be located in a section of Prague, the Nazis chose the garrison town of Terezin. Terezin is located approximately 90 miles north of Prague and just south of Litomerice. The town was originally built in 1780 by Emperor Joseph II of Austria and named after his mother, Empress Maria Theresa. Terezin consisted of the Big Fortress and the Small Fortress. The Big Fortress was surrounded by ramparts and contained barracks. However, Terezin had not been used as a fortress since 1882; Terezin had become a garrison town that remained virtually the same, almost entirely separated from the rest of the countryside. The Small Fortress was used as a prison for dangerous criminals. Terezin changed dramatically when the Nazis renamed it Theresienstadt and sent the first Jewish transports there in November 1941. Initial Conditions The Nazis sent approximately 1,300 Jewish men on two transports to Theresienstadt on November 24 and December 4, 1941. These workers made up the Aufbaukommando (construction detail), later known in the camp as AK1 and AK2. These men were sent to transform the garrison town into a camp for Jews. The largest and most serious problem these work groups faced was metamorphosing a town that in 1940 held approximately 7,000 residents into a concentration camp that needed to hold about 35,000 to 60,000 people. Besides the lack of housing, bathrooms were scarce, water was severely limited and contaminated, and the town lacked sufficient electricity. To solve these problems, to enact German orders, and coordinate the day to day affairs of the ghetto, the Nazis appointed Jakob Edelstein as the Judenälteste (Elder of the Jews) and established a Judenrat (Jewish Council). As the Jewish work groups transformed Theresienstadt, the population of Theresienstadt watched on. Though a few residents attempted to give the Jews assistance in small ways, the mere presence of Czech citizens in the town increased the restrictions on Jews' mobility. There would soon come a day when the Theresienstadt residents would be evacuated and the Jews would be isolated and completely dependent on the Germans. Arrival When large transports of Jews started to arrive at Theresienstadt, there was a great disparity between individuals about how much they knew about their new home. Some, like Norbert Troller, had enough information in advance to know to hide items and valuables.1 Others, especially the elderly, were duped by the Nazis into believing they were going to a resort or spa. Many elderly actually paid large sums of money for a nice location within their new "home." When they arrived, they were housed in the same small spaces, if not smaller, as everyone else. To get to Theresienstadt, thousands of Jews, from orthodox to assimilated, were deported from their old homes. At first, many of the deportees were Czech, but later many German, Austrian, and Dutch Jews arrived. These Jews were crammed in cattle cars with little or no water, food, or sanitation. The trains unloaded at Bohusovice, the nearest train station to Theresienstadt, approximately two kilometers away. The deportees were then forced to disembark and march the rest of the way to Theresienstadt - carrying all of their luggage. Once the deportees reached Theresienstadt, they went to the checking point (called "floodgate" or "Schleuse" in camp slang). The deportees then had their personal information written down and placed in an index. Then, they were searched. Most especially, the Nazis or Czech gendarmes were looking for jewelry, money, cigarettes, as well as other items not allowed in the camp such as hot plates and cosmetics.2 During this initial process, the deportees were assigned to their "housing." Housing One of the many problems with pouring thousands of human beings into a small space has to do with housing. Where were 60,000 people going to sleep in a town meant to hold 7,000? This was a problem for which the Ghetto administration was constantly trying to find solutions. Triple-tiered bunk beds were made and every available floor space was used. In August 1942 (camp population not yet at its highest point), the allotted space per person was two square yards - this included per person usage/need for lavatory, kitchen, and storage space.3 The living/sleeping areas were covered with vermin. These pests included, but certainly were not limited to, rats, fleas, flies, and lice. Norbert Troller wrote about his experiences: "Coming back from such surveys [of the housing], our calves were bitten and full of fleas that we could only remove with kerosene."4 The housing was separated by sex. Women and children under 12 were separated from the men and the boys over age 12. Food was also a problem. In the beginning, there weren't even enough cauldrons to cook food for all of the inhabitants.5 In May 1942, rationing with differential treatment to different segments of society was established. Ghetto inhabitants who worked at hard labor received the most food while the elderly received the least. The food scarcity affected the elderly the most. Lack of nourishment, lack of medicines, and general susceptibility to illness made their fatality rate extremely high. Death Initially, those who had died were wrapped in a sheet and buried. But the lack of food, lack of medicines, and lack of space soon took its toll on Theresienstadt's population and corpses began to outgrow the possible locations for graves. In September 1942, a crematorium was built. There were no gas chambers built with this crematorium. The crematorium could dispose of 190 corpses per day.6 Once the ashes were searched for melted gold (from teeth), the ashes were placed in a cardboard box and stored. Near the end of World War II, the Nazis tried to cover their tracks by disposing of the ashes. They disposed of the ashes by dumping 8,000 cardboard boxes into a pit and dumping 17,000 boxes into the Ohre River.7 Though the mortality rate in the camp was high, the largest fear lay in the transports. Transports to the East Within the original transports into Theresienstadt, many had hoped that living in Theresienstadt would preclude them from being sent East and that their stay would last the duration of the war. On January 5, 1942 (less than two months since the arrival of the first transports in), their hopes were shattered -- Daily Order No. 20 announced the first transport out of Theresienstadt. Transports left Theresienstadt frequently and each one was made up of 1,000 to 5,000 Theresienstadt prisoners. The Nazis decided on the number of people to be sent on each transport, but they left the burden of who exactly was to go on the Jews themselves. The Council of Elders became responsible for fulfilling the Nazis' quotas. Life or death became reliant on exclusion from the transports East -- called "protection." Automatically, all members of the AK1 and AK2 were exempted from transports and five members of their closest family. Other major ways to become protected were to hold jobs that helped the German war effort, work in the Ghetto administration, or be on someone else's list. Finding ways to keep yourself and your family on a protection list, thus off the transports, became a major endeavor of each Ghetto inhabitant. Though some inhabitants were able to find protection, nearly one-half to two-thirds of the population were not protected.8 For every transport, the bulk of the Ghetto population feared that their name would be chosen. The Embellishment On October 5, 1943, the first Danish Jews were transported into Theresienstadt. Soon after their arrival, the Danish Red Cross and the Swedish Red Cross began inquiring about their whereabouts and their condition. The Nazis decided to let them visit one location that would prove to the Danes and to the world that Jews were living under humane conditions. But how could they change an overcrowded, pest infected, ill-nourished, and high mortality-rate camp into a spectacle for the world? In December 1943, the Nazis told the Council of Elders of Theresienstadt about the Embellishment. The commander of Theresienstadt, SS Colonel Karl Rahm, took control of planning. An exact route was planned for the visitors to take. All buildings and grounds along this route were to be enhanced by green turf, flowers, and benches. A playground, sports fields, and even a monument were added. Prominent and Dutch Jews had their billets enlarged, as well as had furniture, drapes, and flower boxes added. But even with the physical transformation of the Ghetto, Rahm thought that the Ghetto was too crowded. On May 12, 1944, Rahm ordered the deportation of 7,500 inhabitants. In this transport, the Nazis decided that all orphans and most of the sick should be included to help the facade that the Embellishment was creating. The Nazis, so clever at creating facades, didn't miss a detail. They erected a sign over a building that read "Boys' School" as well as another sign that read "closed during holidays."9 Needless to say, no one ever attended the school and there were no holidays in camp. On the day that the commission arrived, June 23, 1944, the Nazis were fully prepared. As the tour commenced, well-rehearsed actions took place that were created especially for the visit. Bakers baking bread, a load of fresh vegetables being delivered, and workers singing were all queued by messengers who ran ahead of the entourage.10 After the visit, the Nazis were so impressed with their propaganda feat that they decided to make a film. Liquidating Theresienstadt Once the Embellishment was over, the residents of Theresienstadt knew there would be further deportations.11 On September 23, 1944, the Nazis ordered a transport of 5,000 able-bodied men. The Nazis had decided to liquidate the Ghetto and initially chose able-bodied men to be on the first transport because the able-bodied were the most likely to rebel. Soon after the 5,000 were deported, another order came for 1,000 more. The Nazis were able to manipulate some of the remaining Jews by offering those who had just sent family members an opportunity to join them by volunteering for the next transport. After these, transports continued to leave Theresienstadt frequently. All exemptions and "protection lists" were abolished; the Nazis now chose who was to go on each transport. Deportations continued through October. After these transports, only 400 able-bodied men, plus women, children, and elderly were left within the Ghetto.12 Death Marches Arrive What was going to happen to these remaining inhabitants? The Nazis couldn't come to an agreement. Some hoped that they could still cover the inhumane conditions that the Jews has suffered and thus soften their own punishment after the war. Other Nazis realized that there would be no clemency and wanted to dispose of all the incriminating evidence, including the remaining Jews. No real decision was made and in some ways, both were implemented. In the course of trying to look good, the Nazis made several deals with Switzerland. Even a transport of Theresienstadt inhabitants was sent there. In April 1945, transports and death marches reached Theresienstadt from other Nazi camps. Several of these prisoners had left Theresienstadt just months before. These groups were being evacuated from concentration camps such as Auschwitz and Ravensbrück and other camps farther East. As the Red Army pushed the Nazis farther back, they evacuated the camps. Some of these prisoners arrived on transports while many others arrived on foot. They were in terrible ill-health and some carried typhus. Theresienstadt was unprepared for the large numbers that entered and were unable to properly quarantine those with contagious diseases; thus, a typhus epidemic broke out within Theresienstadt. Besides typhus, these prisoners brought the truth about the transports East. No longer could Theresienstadt inhabitants hope that the East was not as terrible as the rumors suggested; instead, it was much worse. On May 3, 1945, the Ghetto Theresienstadt was placed under the protection of the International Red Cross. Notes 1. Norbert Troller, Thersienstadt: Hitler's Gift to the Jews (Chapel Hill, 1991) 4-6.2. Zdenek Lederer, Ghetto Theresienstadt (New York, 1983) 37-38.3. Lederer, 45.4. Troller, 31.5. Lederer, 47.6. Lederer, 49.7. Lederer, 157-158.8. Lederer, 28.9. Lederer, 115.10. Lederer, 118.11. Lederer, 146.12. Lederer, 167. Further Reading Lederer, Zdenek. Ghetto Theresienstadt. New York, 1983.Schwertfeger, Ruth. Women of Theresienstadt: Voices From a Concentration Camp. New York, 1989.Troller, Norbert. Theresienstadt: Hitler's Gift to the Jews. Chapel Hill, 1991.Yahil, Leni. The Holocaust: The Fate of European Jewry. New York, 1990.