Top Essentials to Know About the Korean War

The Korean War occurred between 1950 and 1953 between North Korea, China, and American-led United Nations forces. Over 36,000 Americans were killed during the war. In addition, it led to a huge increase in Cold War tensions. Here are six essentials to know about the Korean War.

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The Thirty-Eighth Parallel

Korean War
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The thirty-eighth parallel was the line of latitude that separated the northern and southern portions of the Korean peninsula. After World War II, Stalin and the Soviet government created a sphere of influence in the north. On the other hand, America backed Syngman Rhee in the South. This would eventually lead to conflict when in June 1950, North Korea attacked the South leading to President Harry Truman sending troops in to protect South Korea.

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Inchon Invasion

Generals During The Korean War
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General Douglas MacArthur commanded UN forces as they launched an amphibious assault codenamed Operation Chromite at Inchon. Inchon was located near Seoul which had been taken by North Korea during the first months of the War. They were able to push the communist forces back north of the thirty-eighth parallel. They continued over the border into North Korea and were able to defeat the enemy forces.
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The Yalu River Disaster

Crossing The 38th Parallel
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The US Army, led by General MacArthur, continued to move its invasion further and further into North Korea toward the Chinese border at the Yalu River. The Chinese warned the US not to near the border, but MacArthur ignored these warnings and pressed ahead.

As the US military neared the river, troops from China moved into North Korea and drove the US Army back south below the thirty-eighth parallel. At this point, General Matthew Ridgway was the driving forced that stopped the Chinese and regained the territory to the thirty-eighth parallel.

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General MacArthur Gets Fired

Harry Truman and MacArthur
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Once America regained the territory from the Chinese, President Harry Truman decided to make peace to avoid continued fighting. But on his own, General MacArthur disagreed with the president. He argued that to press the war against China included using nuclear weapons on the mainland.

Further, he wanted to demand that China surrender or be invaded. Truman, on the other hand, feared that America could not win, and these actions could possibly lead to World War III. MacArthur took matters into his own hands and went to the press to speak openly about his disagreement with the president. His actions caused the peace negotiations to stall and caused war to continue for approximately two more years.

Because of this, President Truman fired General MacArthur on April 13, 1951. As the president said, "...the cause of world peace is more important than any individual." In General MacArthur's Farewell Address to Congress, he stated his position: "War's very object is victory, not prolonged indecision."

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A Grieving American Soldier
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Once the American forces had regained the territory below the thirty-eighth parallel from the Chinese, the two armies settled into a prolonged stalemate. They continued to fight for two years before an official ceasefire occurred.
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End of the Korean War

Truce at end of Korean War
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The Korean War did not officially end until President Dwight Eisenhower signed an armistice on July 27, 1953. Sadly, the boundaries of North and South Korea ended up being the same as before the war despite the huge loss of life on both sides. Over 54,000 Americans died and well over 1 million Korean and Chinese lost their lives. However, the war directly lead to a massive military buildup per a secret document NSC-68 that greatly increased defense spending. The point of this order was the ability to continue to wage the quite expensive Cold War.

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Kelly, Martin. "Top Essentials to Know About the Korean War." ThoughtCo, Dec. 19, 2017, Kelly, Martin. (2017, December 19). Top Essentials to Know About the Korean War. Retrieved from Kelly, Martin. "Top Essentials to Know About the Korean War." ThoughtCo. (accessed February 18, 2018).