10 Facts About Triceratops

01
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How Much Do You Really Know About Triceratops?

triceratops
Senckenberg Museum.

With its three horns and its giant frill, Triceratops is one of those dinosaurs that can be spotted from a mile away. But how much do you really know about this horned, frilled behemoth, other than that its plastic figurine looks cool posed next to your scale-model Stegosaurus and Tyrannosaurus Rex? On the following slides, you'll discover 10 essential Triceratops facts.

 

02
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Triceratops Had Two Horns, not Three

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Smithsonian Institution.

The name Triceratops is Greek for "three-horned face," but the fact is that this dinosaur had only two genuine horns; the third, much shorter "horn" on the end of its snout was actually made from soft proteins, the kind found in human fingernails, and wouldn't have been of much use in a tussle. (By the way, paleontologists have identified the remains of a two-horned dinosaur called Diceratops, but these may represent a juvenile growth stage of Triceratops; see slide #8.)

03
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The Skull of Triceratops Was One-Third the Length of its Entire Body

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The skull of Triceratops (Wikimedia Commons).

Part of what makes Triceratops such a recognizable dinosaur is the enormous size of its skull, which, with its backward-pointing frill, could easily  attain a length of over seven feet. Unbelievably, the skulls of other ceratopsians, such as Centrosaurus and Styracosaurus, were even bigger and more elaborate, most likely as a result of sexual selection, as males with bigger heads were more attractive to females during mating season. Appropriately enough, the biggest skull of all belonged to the allusively named Titanoceratops.

04
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Triceratops Was on the Lunch Menu of Tyrannosaurus Rex

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Alain Beneteau.

As any dinosaur fan knows, Triceratops and Tyrannosaurus Rex occupied the same ecosystem (the marshes and forests of western North America) at the same time (about 65 million years ago). Therefore, it's reasonable to assume that T. Rex occasionally preyed on Triceratops, though only Hollywood special-effects wizards know how it managed to evade this plant-eater's sharp horns. (For an in-depth description of this epic battle, see Tyrannosaurus Rex vs. Triceratops - Who Wins?)

05
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Triceratops Had a Hard, Parrot-Like Beak

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The jaws and grinding teeth of Triceratops (Wikimedia Commons).

One of the lesser-known facts about horned, frilled dinosaurs like Triceratops is that they possessed bird-like beaks, which they used to clip off tough vegetation (including cycads, ginkgoes and conifers). Triceratops also had "batteries" of shearing teeth embedded in its jaws, of which a few hundred were in use at any given time. As one set of teeth wore down, they would be replaced by those from the adjacent battery, a process that continued throughout this dinosaur's lifetime.

06
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The Ancestors of Triceratops Were the Size of House Cats

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Gobiceratops, an early Asian ancestor of Triceratops (Wikimedia Commons).

By the time ceratopsian dinosaurs reached North America, during the late Cretaceous period, they had evolved to the size of cattle--but their distant progenitors were small, occasionally bipedal, and slightly comical-looking plant-eaters that roamed the expanse of central and eastern Asia. One of the earliest identified ceratopsians is the late Jurassic Chaoyangsaurus, which weighed 30 pounds soaking wet and had only the most rudimentary hint of a horn and frill.

07
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Triceratops Used its Frill to Signal Other Members of the Herd

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Field Museum of Natural History.

Why did Triceratops have such a prominent frill? As with all such anatomical structures in the animal kingdom, this flap of skin scaffolded on bone likely served a dual (or even triple) purpose, but the most probable explanation is that it was used to signal other members of the herd. A brightly colored frill, flushed pink by the numerous blood vessels lying under its  surface, may have signaled sexual availability or warned about the approach of a hungry Tyrannosaurus Rex.

08
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Triceratops May Be the Same Dinosaur as Torosaurus

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Torosaurus, now considered a species of Triceratops (Carnegie Museum of Natural History).

In recent years, many dinosaur genera have been reinterpreted as "growth stages" of already-named species. This appears to be the case with the two-horned Torosaurus, which some paleontologists argue represents the remains of unusually long-lived Triceratops males whose frills continued to grow into old age. (Despite what you may have heard, though, it's not true that Triceratops will have to change its name to Torosaurus, the way Brontosaurus suddenly became Apatosaurus.)

09
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Triceratops Was Once Mistaken for a Giant Bison

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A very early depiction of Triceratops (Charles R. Knight).

In 1887, the famous paleontologist Othniel C. Marsh examined a partial Triceratops skull, complete with horns, discovered in the American west--and promptly assigned the remains to the grazing mammal Bison alticornis, which didn't evolve until tens of millions of years later, long after the dinosaurs had gone extinct. Fortunately for his reputation, Marsh quickly reversed this embarrassing blunder. (See more about the discovery and naming of Triceratops.)

10
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Triceratops Fossils Are Prized Collector's Items

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Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County.

Because the skull and horns of Triceratops are so large, so distinctive and so resistant to natural erosion--and because so many fossil specimens have been discovered in the American west--museums and individual collectors dig deep to enrich their collections. The most famous recent example is Triceratops Cliff, purchased for $1 million in 2008 by a wealthy dinosaur fan and donated to the Boston Museum of Science. Unfortunately, the hunger for Triceratops bones has also resulted in a grey market, as unscrupulous fossil-hunters try to poach and sell this dinosaur's remains.

11
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Triceratops Lived Up to the Brink of the K/T Extinction

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Jura Park.

The fossil remains of Triceratops date to the very end of the Cretaceous period, only slightly before the meteor impact that killed the dinosaurs. By this time, paleontologists believe, dinosaur evolution had slowed to a crawl, and the resulting loss of diversity virtually guaranteed their quick extinction. Along with its fellow plant-eaters, Triceratops was doomed by the loss of its accustomed vegetation, as clouds of dust circled the globe in the wake of the K/T catastrophe.