Historians differ in their opinions of when the Middle Ages began and ended, most sources define the Middle Ages as an historical period from 500 AD to 1450 AD. While there was a suppression of knowledge and learning, the Middle Ages was a period full of discovery and inventing.<p>The 15th century gave birth to three major events: the beginning of the Renaissance Era (circa 1453) with a return to research and learning after the Dark Ages; the birth of the Age of Discovery with increased exploration and improved naval ships and navigation methods that created new trade routes and trade partners; and the birth of modern printing marked by 15th century master printer <a href="https://www.thoughtco.com/johannes-gutenberg-and-the-printing-press-1991865" data-inlink="V3n5d0edmFO2RLyX9bUJ6Q&#61;&#61;" data-component="link" data-source="inlineLink" data-type="internalLink" data-ordinal="1">Johann Gutenberg&#39;s</a> invention of movable type presses (1440) that made the inexpensive mass-printing of books possible.</p>The 16th century was a time of unprecedented change, the very beginning of the modern era of science, a time of great exploration, religious and political urmoil, and extraordinary literature.During the 17th century major changes in philosophy and science took place. Before the 17th century began, science and scientists were not truly recognized. In fact, at first people like the 17th century genius Isaac Newton were called natural philosophers, since there was no concept of the word scientist for most of the 17th century.<p>The 18th century (also referred to as the 1700s) began the first <a href="https://www.thoughtco.com/guide-to-the-industrial-revolution-1221914" data-inlink="NDmynauk5mJ6YW23twjKnw&#61;&#61;" data-component="link" data-source="inlineLink" data-type="internalLink" data-ordinal="1">Industrial Revolution</a>. Modern manufacturing began with <a href="https://www.thoughtco.com/steam-engines-history-1991933" data-inlink="stFOcK5sjM1LbkScoy7vSA&#61;&#61;" data-component="link" data-source="inlineLink" data-type="internalLink" data-ordinal="2">steam engines</a> replacing animal labor. The 18th century saw the widespread replacement of manual labor by new inventions and machinery</p><p>The 19th century was the age of machine tools - tools that made tools - machines that made parts for other machines, including interchangeable parts. The <a href="https://www.thoughtco.com/henry-ford-and-the-assembly-line-1779201" data-inlink="n_jK9N-r1JtA_wY5iaiOdA&#61;&#61;" data-component="link" data-source="inlineLink" data-type="internalLink" data-ordinal="1">assembly line</a> was invented during the 19th century, speeding up the factory production of consumer goods.</p>20th Century - the technology, science, and inventions of the 10s, 20s, 30s, 40s, 50s, 60s, 70s, 80, and 90s.Where do we go from here?