Humanities › History & Culture Timeline of the Ancient Rulers of Persia (Modern Iran) Successive Dynasties of Persia From the Achaemenids to the Arab Conquest Share Flipboard Email Print The Temple of Jerusalem Is Dedicated by King Darius. Heritage Images/Getty Images History & Culture Ancient History and Culture Figures & Events Ancient Languages Greece Egypt Asia Rome Mythology & Religion American History African American History African History Asian History European History Genealogy Inventions Latin American History Medieval & Renaissance History Military History The 20th Century Women's History View More By N.S. Gill Ancient History and Latin Expert M.A., Linguistics, University of Minnesota B.A., Latin, University of Minnesota N.S. Gill is a Latinist, writer, and teacher of ancient history and Latin. She has been featured by NPR and National Geographic for her ancient history expertise. our editorial process N.S. Gill Updated May 30, 2019 In ancient history, there were 3 main dynasties that controlled ancient Persia, a western name for the area that is modern Iran: Achaemenids, Parthians, and Sasanids. There was also a period when the Hellenistic Macedonian and Greek successors of Alexander the Great, known as Seleucids, ruled Persia. Early mention of the area is from Assyria c. 835 B.C., when the Medes occupied the Zagros Mountains. The Medes gained control of an area extending from the Zagros Mountains to include Persis, Armenia, and eastern Anatolia. In 612, they captured the Assyrian city of Ninevah. Here are the rulers of ancient Persia, by dynasty, based on Dynasties of the World, by John E. Morby; Oxford University Press, 2002. Achaemenid Dynasty 559-530 - Cyrus the Great529-522 - Cambyses (son)522 - Smerdis (Bardiya) (brother)521-486 - Darius I, the Great485-465 - Xerxes I (son)464-424 - Artaxerxes I, Longimanus (son)424 - Xerxes II (son)424 - Sogdianus (brother)423-405 - Darius II, Nothus (brother)404-359 - Artaxerxes II, Mnemon (son)358-338 - Artaxerxes III (Ochus) (son)337-336 - Artaxerxes IV ( Arses) (son)335-330 - Darius III (Codomannus) (great-grandson of Darius II) Macedonian Conquest of the Persian Empire 330 Seleucids 305-281 B.C. - Seleucus I Nicator281-261 - Antiochus I Soter261-246 - Antiochus II Theos246-225 - Seleucus II Callinicus Parthian Empire - Arsacid Dynasty 247-211 - Arsaces I (conquered Parthia c. 238)211-191 - Arsaces II (son)191-176 - Priapatius (son)176-171 - Phraates I (son)171-138 - Mithridates I (brother)138-128 - Phraates II (son)128-123 - Artabanus I (son of Priapatius)123-87 - Mithridates II, the Great (son)90-80 - Gotarzes I80-77 - Orodes I77-70 - Sinatruces70-57 - Phraates III (son)57-54 - Mithridates III (son)57-38 - Orodes II (brother)38-2 - Phraates IV (son)2-AD 4 - Phraates V (son)4-7 - Orodes III7-12 - Vonones I (son of Phraates IV)12-38 - Artabanus II38-45 - Vardanes I (son)45-51 - Gotarzes II (brother)51 - Vonones II51-78 - Vologases I (son or brother)55-58 - Vardanes II77-80 - Vologases II78-110 - Pacorus (son of Vologases I)80-90 - Artabanus III (brother)109-129 - Osroes112-147 - Vologases III129-147 - Mithridates IV147-191 - Vologases IV191-208 - Vologases V (son)208-222 - Vologases VI (son)213-224 - Artabanus IV (brother) Sasanid Dynasty 224-241 - Ardashir I241-272 - Shapur I (son; co-regent 240)272-273 - Hormizd I (son)273-276 - Bahram I (brother)276-293 - Bahram II (son)293 - Bahram III (son; deposed)293-302 - Narseh (son of Shapur I)302-309 - Hormizd II (son)310-379 - Shapur II (son)379-383 - Ardashir II (nephew)383-388 - Shapur III (son of Shapur II)388-399 - Bahram IV (son)399-420 - Yazdgard I (son)420-438 - Bahram V, the Wild Ass (son)438-457 - Yazdgard II (son)457-459 - Hormizd III (son)459-484 - Peroz I (brother)484-488 - Balash (brother)488-497 - Kavad I (son of Peroz; deposed)497-499 - Zamasp (brother)499-531 - Kavad I (restored)531-579 - Khusrau I, Anushirvan (son)579-590 - Hormizd IV (son; deposed)590-591 - Bahram VI, Chbn (usurper; deposed)590-628 - Khusrau II, the Victorious (son of Hormizd IV; deposed and died 628)628 - Kavad II, Shiroe (son)628-630 - Ardashir III (son)630 - Shahrbaraz (usurper)630-631 - Boran (daughter of Khusrau II)631 - Peroz II (cousin)631-632 - Azarmedukht (daughter of Khusrau II)632-651 - Yazdgard III (nephew) 651 - Arab Conquest of the Sasanid Empire At the end of the ancient period, war with Heraclius of the Byzantine Empire weakened the Persians enough that the Arabs gained control.