Top Federal Benefit and Assistance Programs

Let’s get this out of the way first: You will not get a "free government grant," and there are no federal government assistance programs, grants or loans to help people pay off credit card debt. However, there are federal government benefit programs available to help with many other life situations and needs.

Often lumped under the term “welfare,” assistance programs like food stamps and state Medicaid should not be confused with “entitlement” programs like Social Security. Welfare programs are based on a family’s combined income. A family’s income must be below the minimum income according to the federal poverty level. Eligibility for entitlement programs is based on the recipient’s prior contributions from payroll taxes. Social Security, Medicare, unemployment insurance, and worker’s compensation are the four main U.S. entitlement programs.

Here you will find profiles, including basic eligibility criteria and contact information for some of the most popular federal benefit and assistance programs.

Social Security Retirement

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Social Security retirement benefits paid to retired workers who have earned enough Social Security credits.

Supplemental Security Income (SSI)

Supplemental Security Income (SSI) is a federal government benefit program providing cash to meet basic needs for food, clothing, and shelter to persons who are blind or otherwise disabled and have little or no other income.


Medicare is a health insurance program for people 65 years of age or older, some disabled people under 65 years, and people with End-Stage Renal Disease (permanent kidney failure treated with dialysis or a transplant).

Medicare Prescription Drug Program

Everyone with Medicare can get this coverage benefit that may help lower prescription drug costs and help protect against higher costs in the future.


The Medicaid Program provides medical benefits to low-income people who have no medical insurance or have inadequate medical insurance.

Stafford Student Loans

Stafford Student Loans are available for undergraduate and graduate students at virtually every college and university in America.

Food Stamps

The Food Stamp Program provides benefits to low-income people that they can use to buy food to improve their diets.

Emergency Food Assistance

The Emergency Food Assistance Program (TEFAP) is a Federal program that helps supplement the diets of low-income needy individuals and families, including elderly people, by providing them with emergency food assistance at no cost.

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF)

Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) is federally funded – state administered – financial assistance program for low income families with dependent children and for pregnant women in their last three months of pregnancy. TANF provides temporary financial assistance while also helping recipients find jobs that will allow them to support themselves.

Public Housing Assistance Program

The HUD Public Housing assistance program was established to provide decent and safe rental housing for eligible low-income families. Public housing comes in all sizes and types, from scattered single family houses to highrise apartments for elderly families.

More Federal Benefit and Assistance Programs

While the Top Federal Benefit Programs may represent the meat-and-potatoes from the buffet of federal assistance programs offered by the U.S. government, there are many more benefit programs that fill out the menu from soup to desert.

Launched in 2002 as one of the first services of President George W. Bush’s “E-Government” initiative, the Benefit Finder is an online resource to help individuals find federal—and state—assistance benefits they may be eligible to receive.

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Longley, Robert. "Top Federal Benefit and Assistance Programs." ThoughtCo, Feb. 16, 2021, Longley, Robert. (2021, February 16). Top Federal Benefit and Assistance Programs. Retrieved from Longley, Robert. "Top Federal Benefit and Assistance Programs." ThoughtCo. (accessed June 26, 2022).