Humanities › Issues A History of Transgender Rights in the United States Share Flipboard Email Print tomeng / Getty Images Issues Civil Liberties Equal Rights Gun Laws Freedoms The U. S. Government U.S. Foreign Policy U.S. Liberal Politics U.S. Conservative Politics Women's Issues The Middle East Terrorism Race Relations Immigration Crime & Punishment Animal Rights Canadian Government View More By Tom Head Civil Liberties Expert Ph.D., Religion and Society, Edith Cowan University M.A., Humanities, California State University - Dominguez Hills B.A., Liberal Arts, Excelsior College Tom Head, Ph.D., is a historian specializing in the history of ethics, religion, and ideas. He has authored or co-authored 29 nonfiction books, including "Civil Liberties: A Beginner's Guide." our editorial process Tom Head Updated November 24, 2020 History is replete with examples of transgender people. The Indian hijras, the Israeli sarisim (eunuchs), and the Roman emperor Elagabalus all fell into this category. Early English colonialists in Africa, like Andrew Battel, even described the Imbangala tribe as "beastly" for living with feminine people assigned male at birth who were kept among the wives. While trans individuals have existed for centuries, the national movement to give them civil rights in the United States has only recently taken place. The Ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment (1868) The Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution is ratified. The equal protection and due process clauses in Section 1 would implicitly include transgender persons, as well as any other identifiable group: No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. While the Supreme Court has not fully embraced the Amendment's implications for transgender rights, these clauses will presumably form the basis of future rulings. The Term "Transexual" is First Used (1923) German physician Magnus Hirschfeld coins the term "transsexual" in a published journal article titled "The Intersexual Constitution" ("Die intersexuelle Konstitution"). Despite the continued use of "transsexual" in some medical settings and even personal use by some trans people, the term is widely considered to be offensive. It is safest to use the terms "trans" or "transgender" as adjectives to refer to trans people (ex. "trans man," "trans non-binary," "transgender woman"). Transgender and transsexual are not synonyms. Transgender is an umbrella term that refers to people who don't identify with the gender associated with the sex assigned to them at birth. "Transsexual" is used by medical professionals to discuss trans people who do undergo medical transition. However, not all transgender people pursue medical transition. The term "trans" may be used to refer to members of transgender communities regardless of medical transition status. The Onset of Hormone Therapy (1949) San Francisco physician Harry Benjamin pioneers the use of hormone therapy in the treatment of trans patients. Benjamin was interested in the fields of anti-aging and sexual identity, believing that it was possible for individuals to feel as if they had been assigned the wrong sex at birth. He advised one such patient to have a sex reassignment surgery in Europe. Doubtful that psychotherapy could help patients who felt this way, Benjamin advocated for hormone therapy and surgery to help trans people live as their true gender. Christine Jorgensen Is Denied a Marriage License (1959) Lynn Gail / Getty Images Christine Jorgensen, a trans woman, is denied a New York marriage license based on the sex she was assigned at birth. Her fiance, Howard Knox, was fired from his job when rumors of their attempt to marry became public. Jorgensen used the publicity her case generated to become a spokeswoman and activist for the trans community. The Stonewall Riots (1969) Barbara Alper / Getty Images The Stonewall riots, which arguably sparked the modern gay rights movement, is sparked by Marsha P. Johnson throwing the first brick and Stormé DeLarverie's initial scuffles with police. Marsha, having co-founded groups such as STAR (Street Transvestite Action Revolutionaries) with fellow LGBTQ activist, Sylvia Rivera, would become one of the nation's most radical champions of trans rights. M.T. v. J.T. (1976) In M.T. v. J.T., the Superior Court of New Jersey rules that trans persons may marry on the basis of their gender identity, regardless of their assigned sex at birth. This landmark case found that the plaintiff, M.T., was entitled to receive spousal support after her husband, J.T., left her and stopped supporting her financially. The court decided that J.T.'s marriage was valid and she deserved support, in part, because she'd had sex reassignment surgery. Ann Hopkins Fights Her Employer (1989) Photo by Mike Kline (notkalvin) / Getty Images Ann Hopkins is denied a promotion on the basis that she is not, in the opinion of management, sufficiently feminine. She sues, and the U.S. Supreme Court rules that gender stereotyping can form the basis of a Title VII sex-discrimination complaint; in the words of Justice Brennan, a plaintiff need only demonstrate that "an employer who has allowed a discriminatory motive to play a part in an employment decision must prove by clear and convincing evidence that it would have made the same decision in the absence of discrimination, and that petitioner had not carried this burden." Minnesota Human Rights Act (1993) Minnesota becomes the first state to ban employment discrimination on the basis of perceived gender identity with the passage of the Minnesota Human Rights Act. In the same year, trans man Brandon Teena is raped and murdered—a tragedy that inspires the film "Boys Don't Cry" (1999) and prompts a national movement to incorporate anti-transgender hate crimes into future hate crime legislation. Littleton v. Prange (1999) In Littleton v. Prange, the Texas Fourth Court of Appeals rejects the logic of New Jersey's M.T. v. J.T. (1976) and refuses to issue marriage licenses to opposite-sex couples in which one partner is trans. A medical malpractice lawsuit led to this case in which the plaintiff, Christie Lee Littleton, sued her husband's doctor over his death. The courts, however, ruled that since Littleton was assigned male at birth, her marriage was invalid, and she couldn't file suit as her husband's widow. J'Noel Gardiner's Inheritance (2001) Corbis via Getty Images / Getty Images The Kansas Supreme Court refuses to allow trans woman J'Noel Gardiner to inherit her husband's property. The court ruled that because Gardiner wasn't assigned female at birth, her subsequent marriage to a man was invalid. Employment Non-Discrimination Act (2007) Chip Somodevilla / Getty Images Gender identity protections are controversially stripped from the 2007 version of the Employment Non-Discrimination Act, but the updates to the legislation ultimately fail. Future versions of ENDA, beginning in 2009, include gender identity protections. Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act (2009) The Matthew Shepard and James Byrd Jr. Hate Crimes Prevention Act, signed by President Barack Obama, allows for federal investigation of bias-motivated crimes based on gender identity in cases where local law enforcement is unwilling to act. Later the same year, Obama issues an executive order banning the executive branch from discriminating on the basis of gender identity in employment decisions.