Humanities › Issues Types of Executions Share Flipboard Email Print Patrick Feller/Flickr/CC BY 2.0 Issues Crime & Punishment Basics Criminals & Crimes Prevention & Safety Investigations & Trials Serial Killers The U. S. Government U.S. Foreign Policy U.S. Liberal Politics U.S. Conservative Politics Women's Issues Civil Liberties The Middle East Terrorism Race Relations Immigration Animal Rights Canadian Government View More By Tom Head Civil Liberties Expert Ph.D., Religion and Society, Edith Cowan University M.A., Humanities, California State University - Dominguez Hills B.A., Liberal Arts, Excelsior College Tom Head, Ph.D., is a historian specializing in the history of ethics, religion, and ideas. He has authored or co-authored 29 nonfiction books, including "Civil Liberties: A Beginner's Guide." our editorial process Tom Head Updated February 21, 2019 Rulers have always devised gruesome ways to do away with prisoners: boiling them in oil, throwing them in snake pits, dragging them under boats, flaying them, poisoning them, burying them alive, drawing and quartering them, and on and on. Today, governments tend to be more civilized -- or at least less creative -- in the way they kill their citizens. The eight execution methods discussed here are those most widely practiced in an official capacity in the modern world. But it's worth mentioning that governments (including, at times, the U.S. Government) have been known to kill prisoners through other, less "official" means--ranging from gunshots (no questions asked) to chemical weapons (as Saddam Hussein authorized against thousands of Iraqi Kurds during the Anfal Campaign of 1988) to starvation (the primary means by which the North Korean government manages to kill so many prisoners without handing out formal death sentences). 01 of 08 Lethal Injection CACorrections/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain Lethal injection is the most prevalent form of capital punishment in the United States today, but this does not necessarily mean that it's the most civilized. History In 1982, the United States became the first country to perform executions by lethal injection. China became the second in 1997, and several other countries have since followed. Lethal injection has been by far the most common type of execution in the United States. All executions in 2005 and all but one execution each in 2004 and 2006 were by lethal injection. In the following years, however, there has been a growing movement against death by lethal injection on the grounds that it is far from the painless means of death its advocates propose. Further, corporations have become reluctant to provide the chemicals needed. There have been two quite different responses to this: Increasing objections to the death penalty in all circumstancesA revival of interest by death penalty proponents of executions by hanging or firing squad. Unsavory Overtones Nazi Germany used lethal injection as part of its T-4 Euthanasia Program as early as 1940, though it was later replaced by poison gas. How It Works The executioner, usually a person injecting the drugs manually (lethal injection machines are no longer in widespread use due to the possibility of mechanical failure), injects three drugs in sequence: 5g Pentothal (sodium thiopental), which is intended to induce a coma100mg Pavulon (pancuronium bromide), which causes paralysis100 mEq potassium chloride, which stops the heart Complications Pentothal does not always induce a coma, leaving the disturbing possibility that at least some prisoners killed by lethal injection may experience extreme pain due to the administration of potassium chloride--without any means of expressing that pain, thanks to the paralysis brought about by the Pavulon. For this reason, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled in Hill v. Crosby (2006) that death row prisoners may challenge lethal injection procedures under the Eighth Amendment. 02 of 08 Gas Chamber Executions Ken Piorkowski/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 2.0 Despite its history, the gas chamber was advertised as an efficient and humane form of execution. At least it seemed that way to the observers... History In 1921, lawmakers in the State of Nevada, horrified by the gruesome electric chair, sought a less violent form of execution. They decided to construct sealed chambers into which prisoners could be locked, chambers that would then be flooded with lethal cyanide gas. Nevada first used the procedure in 1924, and it remained popular for over 50 years, though it has since fallen out of favor due to some unexpected complications (see below). The last gas chamber execution took place in 1999, and only four states still allow it as an option. Unsavory Overtones Cyanide gas (Zyklon B) was Nazi Germany's primary means of mass murder during the Holocaust, as it could be used to kill as many as 2,500 people at once. How It Works The prisoner is strapped to a chair inside a sealed gas chamber. The executioner (standing outside the chamber, of course) pulls a lever dropping potassium cyanide pellets into a vat of sulfuric acid, flooding the chamber with lethal hydrogen cyanide gas. Complications Death can be extremely slow and painful, as demonstrated in several high-profile executions from the 1980s and 1990s. One of the more infamous was that of Jimmy Lee Gray in 1983, who frantically gasped, moaned, and slammed his head into a steel pipe for ten minutes as the cyanide slowly took effect. In 1996, the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals ruled that execution by poison gas constitutes cruel and unusual punishment. 03 of 08 The Electric Chair Ken Piorkowski/Wikimedia Commons/CC BY-SA 2.0 No form of execution has captured the American popular imagination like the electric chair. History The electric chair is a quintessentially American invention. No less a figure than Thomas Edison petitioned for its first use, though his motives for doing so were less than pure. The world's first execution by electrocution took place in 1890, and it remained the most common form of execution until the 1980s. Death row inmates in ten states may still choose the electric chair (and in recent years, two prisoners have--in 2004 and 2006, respectively). How It Works The prisoner is shaved, strapped to a chair, and fitted with electrodes attached to conductive sponges--one on the head, one on the leg--creating a direct current. The prisoner is then hooded. The executioner pulls a switch, and 2,000 volts race through the prisoner's body as the internal body temperature approaches 140 degrees. If performed correctly, the procedure is supposed to cause immediate unconsciousness followed by near-instantaneous death. Complications The procedure is extremely gruesome to contemplate and can burn conscious prisoners alive if performed incorrectly. Horrific accounts of botched electrocutions have essentially made the electric chair a relic of the past, an option only occasionally selected by prisoners who fear lethal injection or simply want a more distinctive exit. 04 of 08 Firing Squad Francisco de Goya/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain Typically associated with the military, the firing squad is one of the least expensive forms of execution--and, if performed correctly, one of the most humane. History Executions by firing squad date as far back as firearms themselves, but only two people have been executed by firing squad in the United States in recent years (in 1977 and 1996 respectively). It remains an option for death row prisoners in Idaho, Oklahoma, and Utah. Overtones Death by firing squad is often regarded as a soldier's death rather than a criminal's death, and therefore nobler. It is also the only modern form of execution that preserves most of the prisoner's organs, allowing for organ donation. How It Works Firing squad executions are so incredibly rare in the United States that it is difficult to speak of a standard operating procedure, but historically the victim is strapped to a chair, five sharpshooters aim at the victim's heart, and all five pull the trigger. One of the sharpshooters is secretly armed with a blank round, which means that each shooter can rest comfortably in the knowledge that there is a 20% chance that she never shot the prisoner. Complications Although both modern firing squad executions went smoothly, it was not unheard of in the past for all five rounds to penetrate the prisoner without killing him--requiring a sixth shooter to fire a round at close range to put the prisoner out of his misery. 05 of 08 Hanging Patrick Feller/Flickr/CC BY 2.0 Although death by hanging is a very old form of punishment, it evokes cultural memories of Southern lynchings and Wild West "frontier justice." History Hanging is one of the most ancient forms of execution. The Book of Esther, for example, centers on the hanging of the genocidal traitor Haman, and British and U.S. law have always incorporated death by hanging. Although most states have abolished this practice, New Hampshire and Washington still allow prisoners to choose this option. The most recent legal U.S. hanging took place in 1996. Unsavory Overtones Over the past century, hanging has become nearly synonymous with the lynchings of African Americans in the American South, and of Hispanics in the Midwest and California. How It Works The prisoner stands on a trapdoor, and a rope descends from a wooden beam overhead. The rope is fastened around the prisoner's neck in a "Hangman's noose," which tightens when pulled upon. The executioner pulls a lever opening the trapdoor and dropping the prisoner, who ideally dies quickly due to a broken neck. Complications The length of the rope must be carefully calibrated in proportion to the prisoner's weight. If the rope is too short, insufficient velocity is generated to break the prisoner's neck and the prisoner is painfully strangled to death. If the rope is too long, excessive velocity is generated and decapitation may result. Even if the rope is of exactly the right length, a prisoner with an exceptionally large or strong neck may suffer strangulation rather than immediate death. 06 of 08 Stoning Sandro Botticelli/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain Stoning stands apart from other forms of capital punishment in that the entire community participates in the killing. History Stoning is arguably the world's oldest form of execution. It is as old as written literature, and the most common death penalty described in the Bible (prompting Jesus' famous anti-death penalty statement in John 8.7: "Let he who is without sin cast the first stone"). Although it has never been a legal form of execution in the United States, it is practiced elsewhere in the world, primarily in the Middle East and sub-Saharan Africa. Unsavory Overtones Stoning is primarily enforced by Islamic fundamentalist sharia law, often for bizarre reasons. In 2004, 13-year-old Zhila Izadyar was sentenced to death by stoning in Iran for the "crime" of being raped by her older brother. Although the sentence was later overturned after an international outcry, equally horrific stoning sentences are often carried out throughout the developing world. How It Works The prisoner is buried either up to his waist (if male) or up to her shoulders (if female) and then pelted with stones by a crowd of volunteers until obviously battered to death. Under the terms of most fundamentalist courts, the stones must be small enough that death cannot reasonably be expected to result from only one or two blows, but large enough to cause physical harm. The average execution by stoning is extremely painful, lasting at least 10 to 20 minutes. 07 of 08 Beheading Pierre Puvis de Chavannes/Wikimedia Commons/Public Domain Execution by beheading, whether it is carried out by sword or guillotine, is one of the most gruesome forms of capital punishment. At least it's usually quick. History Beheading was probably the most humane form of punishment available in the ancient world, with the possible exception of the administration of poison. Although it has never been a legal form of execution in the United States, it is practiced elsewhere. Most notably, it remains the preferred method of execution in Saudi Arabia. Souvenirs One "benefit" of beheading is that it allows the executioners to display the victim's head as a warning. This practice dates back to ancient times, but one particularly striking more recent example took place in the aftermath of Nat Turner's rebellion, as posses searching for Turner allegedly killed nearby slaves nearly at random and mounted their heads on fenceposts as a warning. How It Works The victim is restrained, usually forced to kneel, and the executioner cuts off the head with a sword or knife. In Renaissance-era Europe (most famously in the aftermath of the French Revolution), the process was automated by way of a device called a guillotine, which dropped a heavy blade through the prisoner's neck--allowing for a clean, instant decapitation. Complications Beheading can be a relatively humane form of punishment -- at least when compared with the other methods still in use in the United States -- provided that the executioner is strong and reasonably competent. When the executioner is not, death can be slow and excruciatingly painful. 08 of 08 Crucifixion DEA/G. CIGOLINI/Getty Images Whether performed by Romans at Golgotha or by U.S. personnel at Abu Ghraib, crucifixion is one of the slowest, most torturous forms of execution ever devised. History Crucifixion was most common in ancient Rome. Although it has never been legal in the United States, it is worth noting that a CIA interrogator killed Manadel al-Jamadi in Abu Ghraib Prison in 2003 by crucifixion. The only country to practice crucifixion as an official form of capital punishment is Sudan. Death on Display The ancient Romans would sometimes crucify rebels by the dozens, then leave their corpses hanging for as long as they would continue to hang. In the eyes of the Romans, crucifixion's deterrent effects probably justified what was otherwise a highly inefficient form of execution. How It Works The prisoner is hoisted off the ground, arms restrained to the sides or behind the back, and simply left alone. Over time, the prisoner will grow tired and fall forward--constricting the lungs and causing asphyxiation. Death by crucifixion can take hours or even days.