Types of Non-Mendelian Genetics

DNA Model experiment Step 6 of 6, Twist the ladder to to create a spiral shape like DNA itself
Dorling Kindersley: Dave King / Getty Images
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Non-Mendelian Genetics

Mendel is the Father of Genetics
Gregor Johann Mendel. Erik Nordenskiöld

Gregor Mendel is known as the "Father of Genetics" for his pioneering work with pea plant genetics. However, he only was able to describe simple or complete dominance patterns in individuals based on what he saw with the pea plants. There are many other ways that genes are inherited that Mendel did not publish about when he published his work. Over time, many of these patterns have emerged and have significantly impacted speciation ​and evolution of species over time. Below is a list of some of the most common of these non-Mendelian inheritance patterns and how they impact the evolution of species over time.

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Incomplete Dominance

Rabbit fur color is an example of incomplete dominance
Rabbits with different colored fur. Getty/Hans Surfer

Incomplete dominance is the blending of traits expressed by the alleles that combine for any given characteristic. In a characteristic that shows incomplete dominance, the heterozygous individual will show a mix or blend of the two alleles' traits. Incomplete dominance will give a 1:2:1 phenotype ratio with the homozygous genotypes each showing a different feature and the heterozygous showing one more distinct phenotype.

Incomplete dominance can affect evolution by the blending of the traits being a desirable characteristic. It is often seen as desirable in artificial selection as well. For example, rabbit coat color can be bred to show a blend of the parents' colors. Natural selection may also work that way for the coloring of rabbits in the wild if it helps camouflage them from predators. More »

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Codominance

The white and pink petals shows codominance
A rhododendron showing codominance. Darwin Cruz

Co-dominance is another non-Mendelian inheritance pattern that is seen when neither allele is recessive or masked by the other allele in the pair that code for any given characteristic. Instead of blending to create a new feature, in co-dominance, both alleles are equally expressed and their features are both seen in the phenotype. Neither allele is recessive or masked in any of the generations of offspring in the case of co-dominance.

Co-dominance affects evolution by keeping both alleles being passed down instead of being lost throughout evolution. Since there is no true recessive in the case of co-dominance, it is harder for the trait to be bred out of the population. Also, much like that of incomplete dominance, new phenotypes are created and can help an individual survive long enough to reproduce and pass down those traits. More »

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Multiple Alleles

Human blood types are controlled by multiple alleles
Blood Types. Getty/Blend Images/ERproductions Ltd

Multiple alleles happen when there are more than two alleles that are possible to code for any one characteristic. It increases the diversity of traits that are coded by the gene. Multiple alleles can also encompass incomplete dominance and co-dominance along with simple or complete dominance for any given characteristic.

The diversity afforded by being controlled by multiple alleles gives natural selection an extra phenotype, or more, that it can work on. This gives the species an advantage for survival as there are many different traits that are shown and therefore, the species is more likely to have a favorable adaptation that will continue the species on. ​More »

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Sex-linked Traits

Colorblindness is controlled on the X chromosome
Color blindness test. Getty/Dorling Kindersley

Sex-linked traits are found on the sex chromosomes of the species and are passed down in that manner. Most of the time, sex-linked traits are seen in one sex and not the other, although both sexes are physically able to inherit a sex-linked trait. These traits are not as common as other traits because they are found only one one set of chromosomes, the sex chromosomes, instead of the multiple pairs of non-sex chromosomes.

Sex-linked traits are often associated with recessive disorders or diseases. The fact they are rarer and only in one sex over the other most of the time makes it difficult for the trait to be selected against by natural selection. That is how these disorders continue to be passed down from generation to generation despite the fact they are clearly not the favored adaptation and can cause severe health issues.  More »