Chemistry Table of the Valences of the Elements

Valence electrons
Valence electrons are those that participate in a chemical reaction. Science Photo Library/MEHAU KULYK/ Getty Images

You may assume that the valences of the elements are those that can be derived by looking at the groups (columns) of the periodic table. While these are the most common valences, the real behavior of electrons is less simple.

Here is a table of element valences. Remember that an element's electron cloud will become more stable by filling, emptying, or half-filling the shell. Also, shells don't stack neatly one on top of another, so don't always assume an element's valence is determined by the number of electrons in its outer shell.

Reference: Lange's Handbook of Chemistry, 8th Ed., Norbert A. Lange (Ed.), Handbook Publishers, Inc. 1952.

Table of Element Valences

Number Element Valence
1Hydrogen(-1), +1
2Helium0
3Lithium+1
4Beryllium+2
5Boron-3, +3
6Carbon(+2), +4
7Nitrogen-3, -2, -1, (+1), +2, +3, +4, +5
8Oxygen-2
9Fluorine-1, (+1)
10Neon0
11Sodium+1
12Magnesium+2
13Aluminum+3
14Silicon-4, (+2), +4
15Phosphorus-3, +1, +3, +5
16Sulfur-2, +2, +4, +6
17Chlorine-1, +1, (+2), +3, (+4), +5, +7
18Argon0
19Potassium+1
20Calcium+2
21Scandium+3
22Titanium+2, +3, +4
23Vanadium+2, +3, +4, +5
24Chromium+2, +3, +6
25Manganese+2, (+3), +4, (+6), +7
26Iron+2, +3, (+4), (+6)
27Cobalt+2, +3, (+4)
28Nickel(+1), +2, (+3), (+4)
29Copper+1, +2, (+3)
30Zinc+2
31Gallium(+2). +3
32Germanium-4, +2, +4
33Arsenic-3, (+2), +3, +5
34Selenium-2, (+2), +4, +6
35Bromine-1, +1, (+3), (+4), +5
36Krypton0
37Rubidium+1
38Strontium+2
39Yttrium+3
40Zirconium(+2), (+3), +4
41Niobium(+2), +3, (+4), +5
42Molybdenum(+2), +3, (+4), (+5), +6
43Technetium+6
44Ruthenium(+2), +3, +4, (+6), (+7), +8
45Rhodium(+2), (+3), +4, (+6)
46Palladium+2, +4, (+6)
47Silver+1, (+2), (+3)
48Cadmium(+1), +2
49Indium(+1), (+2), +3
50Tin+2, +4
51Antimony-3, +3, (+4), +5
52Tellurium-2, (+2), +4, +6
53Iodine-1, +1, (+3), (+4), +5, +7
54Xenon0
55Cesium+1
56Barium+2
57Lanthanum+3
58Cerium+3, +4
59Praseodymium+3
60Neodymium+3, +4
61Promethium+3
62Samarium(+2), +3
63Europium(+2), +3
64Gadolinium+3
65Terbium+3, +4
66Dysprosium+3
67Holmium+3
68Erbium+3
69Thulium(+2), +3
70Ytterbium(+2), +3
71Lutetium+3
72Hafnium+4
73Tantalum(+3), (+4), +5
74Tungsten(+2), (+3), (+4), (+5), +6
75Rhenium(-1), (+1), +2, (+3), +4, (+5), +6, +7
76Osmium(+2), +3, +4, +6, +8
77Iridium(+1), (+2), +3, +4, +6
78Platinum(+1), +2, (+3), +4, +6
79Gold+1, (+2), +3
80Mercury+1, +2
81Thallium+1, (+2), +3
82Lead+2, +4
83Bismuth(-3), (+2), +3, (+4), (+5)
84Polonium(-2), +2, +4, (+6)
85Astatine?
86Radon0
87Francium?
88Radium+2
89Actinium+3
90Thorium+4
91Protactinium+5
92Uranium(+2), +3, +4, (+5), +6
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Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. "Chemistry Table of the Valences of the Elements." ThoughtCo, Feb. 1, 2018, thoughtco.com/valences-of-the-elements-chemistry-table-606458. Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. (2018, February 1). Chemistry Table of the Valences of the Elements. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/valences-of-the-elements-chemistry-table-606458 Helmenstine, Anne Marie, Ph.D. "Chemistry Table of the Valences of the Elements." ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/valences-of-the-elements-chemistry-table-606458 (accessed April 21, 2018).