Science, Tech, Math › Social Sciences Overview of Viking Trading and Exchange Networks Economics of the Norse Share Flipboard Email Print Roberto Moiola/Sysaworld/Getty Image Social Sciences Archaeology Ancient Civilizations Basics Excavations History of Animal and Plant Domestication Psychology Sociology Economics Ergonomics Maritime By K. Kris Hirst Archaeology Expert M.A., Anthropology, University of Iowa B.Ed., Illinois State University K. Kris Hirst is an archaeologist with 30 years of field experience. Her work has appeared in scholarly publications such as Archaeology Online and Science. our editorial process Twitter Twitter K. Kris Hirst Updated July 03, 2019 The Viking trade network included trading relationships into Europe, Charlemagne's Holy Roman Empire, into Asia, and the Islamic Abbasid empire. This is evidenced by the identification of items such as coins from North Africa recovered from a site in central Sweden and Scandinavian brooches from sites east of the Ural Mountains. Trade was a vital feature of the Norse Atlantic communities throughout their history and a way for the colonies to support their use of landnam, a sometimes unreliable farming technique for environments the Norse didn't quite understand. Documentary evidence indicates that there were several groups of specific people who traveled between the Viking trading centers and other centers throughout Europe, as envoys, merchants, or missionaries. Some travelers, such as the Carolingian missionary bishop Anskar (801-865) left extensive reports of their travels, giving us great insight to traders and their clients. Viking Trade Commodities The Norse traded commodities including enslaved people, coins, ceramics, and materials from specialized crafts such as copper-alloy casting and glass-working (beads and vessels both). The access to some commodities could make or break a colony: Greenland's Norse relied on trade in walrus and narwhal ivory and polar bear skins to support their ultimately failing farming strategies. Metallurgical analysis at Hrisbru in Iceland indicates that the elite Norse traded in bronze objects and raw material from the tin-rich regions in Britain. Significant trade in dried fish emerged near the end of the 10th century AD in Norway. There, cod played a significant role in Viking trade, when commercial fishing and sophisticated drying techniques allowed them to expand the market throughout Europe. Trade Centers In the Viking homeland, major trading centers included Ribe, Kaupang, Birka, Ahus, Truso, Grop Stromkendorf, and Hedeby. Goods were brought to these centers and then dispersed into the Viking society. Many of these site assemblages include an abundance of a soft yellow earthenware called Badorf-ware, produced in the Rhineland; Sindbæk has argued that these items, rarely found on non-trading communities, were used as containers to bring goods to places, rather than as trade items. In 2013, Grupe et al. conducted stable isotope analysis of skeletal material at the Viking trade center of Haithabu (later Schleswig) in Denmark. They found that the diet of the individuals expressed in the human bones reflected the relative significance of trade over time. Members of the earlier community showed a predominance of freshwater fish (cod imported from the North Atlantic) in their diet, while later residents shifted to a diet of terrestrial domestic animals (local farming). Norse-Inuit Trade There's some evidence in the Viking Sagas that trade played a role in the North American contact between the Norse and the Inuit occupants. Also, Norse symbolic and utilitarian objects are found at Inuit sites and similar Inuit objects in Norse sites. There are fewer Inuit objects in Norse sites, a fact which may be because the trade goods were organic, or that the Norse exported some Inuit prestige items into the wider European trade network. Evidence at the site of Sandhavn in Greenland seems to suggest that the quite rare co-existence of Inuit and Norse there was a result of the opportunity to trade with one another. Ancient DNA evidence from the Farm Beneath the Sand (GUS) site, also in Greenland, however, finds no support for the trade of bison robes, posited earlier from morphological examination. Viking and Islamic Trade Connections In a 1989 study of formal weights discovered at the Viking site of Paviken in Gotland near Vastergarn, Sweden, Erik Sperber reported three main types of trading weights in use: Ball-shaped weights of ironclad with a layer of bronze or solid bronze; these vary between 4 and 200 gmCubo-octaedric weights of lead bronze, tin bronze or brass; up to 4.2 gramsLeaden weights of different shapes and sizes Sperber believes at least some of these weights conform to the Islamic system of the Ummayyad dynasty leader Abd' al Malik. The system, established in 696/697, is based on the dirhem of 2.83 grams and the mitqa of 2.245 grams. Given the breadth of Viking trade, it is likely that the Vikings and their partners may have utilized several trade systems. 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