Humanities › English Defining Grammar Share Flipboard Email Print Illustration by Claire Cohen. © 2018 ThoughtCo. English English Grammar An Introduction to Punctuation Writing By Richard Nordquist English and Rhetoric Professor Ph.D., Rhetoric and English, University of Georgia M.A., Modern English and American Literature, University of Leicester B.A., English, State University of New York Dr. Richard Nordquist is professor emeritus of rhetoric and English at Georgia Southern University and the author of several university-level grammar and composition textbooks. our editorial process Richard Nordquist Updated January 09, 2020 Hear the word glamour and what comes to mind? Celebrities, most likely, limousines and red carpets, swarms of paparazzi and more money than sense. But, odd as it may sound, glamour comes directly from a decidedly less glamorous word; grammar. During the Middle Ages, grammar was often used to describe learning in general, including the magical, occult practices popularly associated with the scholars of the day. People in Scotland pronounced grammar as "glam-our," and extended the association to mean magical beauty or enchantment. In the 19th century, the two versions of the word went their separate ways, so that our study of English grammar today may not be quite as glamorous as it used to be. There are two common definitions of grammar: The systematic study and description of a language. A set of rules and examples dealing with the syntax and word structures of a language usually intended as an aid to the learning of that language. Descriptive grammar (definition #1) refers to the structure of a language as it's actually used by speakers and writers. Prescriptive grammar (definition #2) refers to the structure of a language as certain people think it should be used. Both kinds of grammar are concerned with rules, but in different ways. Specialists in descriptive grammar (called linguists) study the rules or patterns that underlie our use of words, phrases, clauses, and sentences. On the other hand, prescriptive grammarians (such as most editors and teachers) layout rules about what they believe to be the “correct” or “incorrect” use of language. Interfacing With Grammar To illustrate these different approaches, let's consider the word interface. The descriptive grammarian would note, among other things, that the word is made up of a common prefix (inter-) and a root word (face) and that it’s currently used as both a noun and a verb. The prescriptive grammarian, however, would be more interested in deciding whether or not it is “correct” to use interface as a verb. Here's how the prescriptive Usage Panel at The American Heritage Dictionary passes judgment on interface: The Usage Panel has been unable to muster much enthusiasm for the verb. Thirty-seven percent of Panelists accept it when it designates the interaction between people in the sentence The managing editor must interface with a variety of freelance editors and proofreaders. But the percentage drops to 22 when the interaction is between a corporation and the public or between various communities in a city. Many Panelists complain that interface is pretentious and jargony. Similarly, Bryan A. Garner, author of The Oxford Dictionary of American Usage and Style, dismisses interface as "jargonmongers' talk." By their nature, all popular style and usage guides are prescriptive, though to varying degrees: some are fairly tolerant of deviations from standard English; others can be downright cranky. The most irascible critics are sometimes called "the Grammar Police." Though certainly different in their approaches to language, both kinds of grammar are useful to students. The Value of Studying Grammar The study of grammar all by itself won't necessarily make you a better writer. But by gaining a clearer understanding of how our language works, you should also gain greater control over the way you shape words into sentences and sentences into paragraphs. In short, studying grammar may help you become a more effective writer. Descriptive grammarians generally advise us not to be overly concerned with matters of correctness: language, they say, isn't good or bad; it simply is. As the history of the glamorous word grammar demonstrates, the English language is a living system of communication, a continually evolving affair. Within a generation or two, words and phrases come into fashion and fall out again. Over centuries, word endings and entire sentence structures can change or disappear. Prescriptive grammarians prefer giving practical advice about using language: straightforward rules to help us avoid making errors. The rules may be over-simplified at times, but they are meant to keep us out of trouble—the kind of trouble that may distract or even confuse our readers. Cite this Article Format mla apa chicago Your Citation Nordquist, Richard. "Defining Grammar." ThoughtCo, Aug. 27, 2020, thoughtco.com/what-is-grammar-p2-1689675. Nordquist, Richard. (2020, August 27). Defining Grammar. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-grammar-p2-1689675 Nordquist, Richard. "Defining Grammar." ThoughtCo. https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-grammar-p2-1689675 (accessed May 7, 2021). copy citation Watch Now: Why is Proper Grammar Important?